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Thermochemistry

TermDefinition
Thermochemsitry the study of heat changes that occur during chemical reactions and phase changes (physical changes of state)
Exothermic process heat flows from the system to the surroundings, feels hot
Endothermic process heat flows from the surroundings to the system, feels cold
Collision Theory atoms, ions, and molecules can react to form produces when they collide, provided that the particles have enough kinetic energy
Activation energy the minimum amount of energy that particles must have in order to react
Activated Complex name for the arrangement of atoms at the peak of the activation energy barrier, in-between state, neither reactants nor products
Endothermic Reaction reactants have less potential energy than products (reactants lower on diagram than products) Energy absorbed > Energy released
Exothermic Reaction reactants have more potential energy than products (reactants higher on diagram than products) Energy released > Energy absorbed
calorie commonly used unit for heat energy
Calorie energy contained in the food we eat, measured in kilocalories
Joule (J) SI unit for heat energy, will primarily be used for our calculations
calorie to Calorie conversion factor 1000 calories = 1 Calorie =1 kilocalorie
Joule to calorie conversion, joule to kilojoule conversion 4.18 J = 1 cal 1000 J = 1 kJ
Enthalpy (H) represents the heat content of the material
change in enthalpy (ΔH) difference in heat content between the products and reactants of a chemical reaction, referred to as heat of reaction
ΔH equation ΔH=products - reactants
Heat flow out of the system Hproducts – Hreactants < 0; negative ΔH, exothermic reaction
Heat flows into the system Hproducts – Hreactants > 0; positive ΔH, endothermic reaction
energy located on products side of the reaction Exothermic reaction, energy is released
energy located on reactants side of the reaction Endothermic reaction, energy is absorbed
specific heat capacity (C) amount of heat it takes to raise the temperature of 1 gram of the substance 1°C , also referred to as just specific heat
specific heat equation q=mCΔT
units for specific heat j/(g°C) or cal/(g°C)
calorimetry way to measure the heat that is released during chemical reactions
Law of Conservation of Energy energy cannot be created or destroyed, only converted into different forms
Calorimetry experiments Heat released by a system = heat absorbed by its surroundings mCΔT=-mCΔT
calorimeter device used to measure the absorption or release of heat in chemical and physical processes
bomb calorimeter used to determine heat released during a chemical reaction or heat contained in the foods we eat
melting solid to liquid, endothermic
freezing liquid to solid, exothermic
vaporization liquid to gas, endothemric
condensing gas to liquid, exothermic
sublimation solid to gas (without passing through liquid phase), endothermic
deposition gas to solid (without passing through liquid phase), exothermic
two types of vaporizaton evaporation and boiling
evaporation vaporization only at the surface, occurs at temperatures below the boiling point
boiling vaporization throughout the liquid, bubbles are bubbles of vapor forming and when pressure inside equals atmospheric pressure vapor is released
normal boiling point boiling point at a pressure of 1 atmosphere
changes in boiling point based on external pressure higher external pressure=higher boiling point lower external pressure=lower boiling point
Created by: msbaker