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Science 8 Matter

This covers the NC Science 8 standards for 8.P.1

Name the building blocks of matter: atoms
List the subatomic particles of an atom: proton, neutron and electron
Name the subatomic particle charges: proton-positive neutron-no charge electron- negative
Atoms of the same kind form: elements
What are the two main categories of properties of matter? physical and chemical
What are some physical properties of matter? Physical properties include: appearance, texture, color, odor, melting point, boiling point, density, solubility, polarity, and many others.
What are some chemical properties of matter? They include reactivity, flammability, and the ability to rust.
How do you know a physical change has taken place? a change in texture, color, temperature, shape, or state has taken place
How do you know a chemical change has taken place? when the composition is changed, such as if the temperature or color changes, or it forms a noticeable odor, bubbles, or a precipitate
What are the different types of chemical reactions? combination, decomposition, single or double displacement, combustion, and redox
What does the Law of Conservation of Mass state? matter can neither be created nor destroyed, it can only be changed from one form to another
To what other topics does the Law of Conservation apply? energy, momentum, electric charge
Name the document that organizes all known elements: periodic table
Who created the document that organizes all known elements? Dmitri Mendeleev
How are elements organized on the periodic table of elements? by atomic number
How is the atomic number different from the atomic mass of an element? Mass number is the number of protons and neutrons in an atom, and it tells us about the mass of the atom in amu, or atomic mass units. Atomic mass is the average mass of all the isotopes of a certain type.
How do you find the number of protons in an element? look at the atomic number
How do you find the number of neutrons in an element? subtract the atomic number from the mass number
How do you know the number of electrons in an element? this is equal to the number of protons, so look again at the atomic number
What is the current accepted model of the atom? Schrodinger and Heisenberg Mode
List 3 theories of atomic structure other than the current model and the scientists who developed the theory. (Make sure you include the year. It’s important to the discussion!) solid sphere model: 1803 plum pudding model: 1904 nuclear model: 1911 planetary model: 1913 quantum model: 1926 etc.
What is Stoichiometry? the relationship between the relative quantities of substances taking part in a reaction or forming a compound, typically a ratio of whole integers.
What is the charge of an atom’s nucleus? positive
What must happen in an atom for the atom to be neutrally charged? it must have the same number of protons and electrons
What are columns on the PTE called? families or groups
What do these columns tell you about the elements in the column? number of valence electrons in the outer shell
What are horizontal rows on the PTE called? periods
What do these rows tell you about the atom? number of electron shells
What do we call Group 1 elements? alkali
What do we call Group 2 elements? alkaline earth metals
What do we call Groups 3-12 elements collectively? transitional metals
How are Groups 13-16 named? by the top element
What do we call Group 17 elements? halogens
What do we call Group 18 elements? noble gases
Which group readily combines with Group 1 elements? Why? 17, because it makes the perfect octet of valence electrons.
Which group rarely reacts with any other elements? 18, the noble gases
Which Group of the PTE is the most reactive? alkali
What is a mixture? the product of the random distribution of one substance through another without any chemical reaction, as distinct from a compound.
Why are the parts of a solution called? solute and solvent
What is a compound? a substance formed from two or more elements chemically united in fixed proportions.
How is a compound different from a mixture? compounds are chemically combined, the parts of a mixture keep their own properties
Created by: Alia Cherrywood