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Clin Chem Lab Exam

The gram molecular weight of a chemical substance expressed in grams Mol
The gram equivalents of solute per liter of a solution is normality
The instrument used to measure changes in %T is Spectrophotometer
Make sure you run your test properly; your test needs to be in standard range control
known amount of analyze; used to set up a curve Standard
CLSI Clinical laboratory & Standards Institute
CLRW Clinical laboratory reagent water; deionized water
Blue chemical label health hazard
Red chemical label Flammability
White chemical label Special handling
Yellow chemical label Reactivity
Mass/weight in a solution Specific gravity
The concentration of solute molecules contributing to osmotic pressure Osmolality
The osmette instrument measure the concentration of _______ using the ________ Osmotic pressure; freezing point depression
Osmolality is expressed in what units? mOsm/kg H2O
ISE Ion selective electrode
What methodology measures cell potential, Cell, under equilibrium conditions Potentiometry
Ecell is described by what equation Nernst Equation
The more concentrated a solution, the ____ the freezing point will be Lower
The rapid cooling of a liquid without crystallization or solidification Supercooling
When water freezes, heat is released at the rate of 80 calories per gram of water Heat of fusion
Hydrophobic, organic ion exchanger that reacts with specific ions ionophore
What does "seeding" mean time which crystallization is initiated
Osmole depresses the freezing point of water by 1.858 degrees celsius
Major cation of extracellular fluid Sodium
VITROS Na+ Slide method contains methyl monensin
VITROS K+ Slides method contains valinomycin
Major anion in the extracellular water space Chloride
Potassium is the major cation of the intracellular fluid Potassium
HCO3- deficit metabolic acidosis
HCO3- excess metabolic alkalosis
Hypoventilation respiratory acidosis
Hyperventilation Respiratory alkalosis
What do we measure in the glucose analysis experiment NADH (more formed = more glucose)
What parameter of serum or plasma is the single most valuable factor in the evaluation of the acid-base status of a patient? pH
What parameter of serum or plasma assesses how well the body eliminates carbon dioxide? PCO2
What parameter of serum or plasma assesses the ability of the body to absorb oxygen? PO2
The pH of the blood is an indicator of the balance of what 3 systems? buffer (blood), renal (kidney), respiratory (lung)
What is the test for arterial perfusion? Allens test
Normal SO2 interval is 94-98%
Amnt of oxyhemoglobin expressed as a fraction of the total hemoglobin SO2
What metabolic disturbance is being presented with a patient with an epileptic seizure metabolic acidosis; seizure = lactic acid = acidosis
What is the allens test Make fist, press on brachial artery, open fist, release artery; time it takes for skin to turn from white to pink
What is the major end product of protein nitrogen metabolism in humans urea
As NADH is cover to NAD, do we see an increase or decrease in absorbance decrease
What is the high energy storage compound giving the body the ability to generate ATP creatine phosphate
Which 3 organs synthesize creatine kidney, liver and pancreas
Creatinine is used to assess renal function
The normal range for BUN is 7-20 mg/dL
Which analyze is most constant in blood creatinine
Free creatine is proportional to muscle mass
The "classic" test for creatinine uses alkaline picrate and is called the Jaffee reaction
BUN test principle Enzyme test
Circulating levels of urea depend on protein intake, protein catabolism and kidney function
Jaffee reaction produces what color orange
Creatinine test principle Kinetic method
Normal range of creatinine 0.6-1.2 males; 0.5-1.1 mg/dl females
What is the benzelthonium chloride used as in the micro protein testing experiment Protein denaturing reagent
What method did we use in the micro protein testing experiment Turbidometric
What structure acts as a filter, not allowing large proteins to pass into the renal tubules, but allowing small/intermediate proteins through Glomeruli
How much protein would be found in a 24 hour urine protein analysis in a patient with normal kidney function <150 mg/day
Where are the bulk of proteins synthesized liver
What is the term given to proteins meaning they have both acid and basic groups amiphoteric
In electrophoresis systems, the mobility of the molecules is a function of pH
Why would you have decreased alpha2, beta and y proteins in serum with nephrotic syndrome They're lost in the urine due to increased permeability of the nephron
What gives Biuret reagent its blue color cupric ions
What determines the intensity of the purple color in the Biuret reaction how many peptide linkages are available
State the protein fractions in order from anode to cathode albumin, alpha1, alpha2, beta, y
Decreased levels of serum protein can suggest problems in what 2 organs kidney and liver
Increased levels of total protein can signify dehydration, multiple myeloma, and chronic liver disease
Functions of major proteins Carrier, infection defense, reserve for AA's, osmotic pressure, pH balance
The isoelectric point means no charge
In electrophoresis, do smaller molecules travel faster or slower faster
90% of unconjugated bilirubin is bound, picked up and transported to the liver by what? Albumin
Total bilirubin = indirect + direct
The classic bilirubin reaction is the diazo reaction
In an acid or neutral pH what is the color of the diazo reaction pink
What is the purpose of a solubilizing reagent for the bilirubin diazo reaction solubilizes albumin bound bilirubin
Bilirubin is a biproduct of heme breakdown
In the liver, bilirubin is conjugated to what glucoronic acid
A rise of direct bilirubin is an indication of what disease process Obstructive jaundice
A rise in indirect bilirubin is an indication of what disease process Hemolytic anemias
A rise in total bilirubin is an indication of what disease process Hepatitis
Why is it important to monitor neonate bilirubin levels To prevent kernicterus; unconjugated bilirubin builds up and affects the brain
Do you need an accelerating reagent for indirect or direct bilirubin testing indirect
What are the 3 fractions of total calcium in the serum ionized, bound (to albumin), complexed (other ions)
45% of calcium is bound to the carrier protein albumin
45% of calcium is free or ionized
a normal total calcium for someone my age is 8.6-10 mg/dL
Since ionized calcium values vary inversely with pH, why are normal values based on a pH of 7.4 The calcium is in the blood and the pH of the blood is 7.4
Why can't you use glass containers, test tubes when doing calcium analyses glass contains calcium in the silica
Why is it best to used new test tubes for calcium analyses tap water and soap contain calcium
What percent of calcium is stored in the bones 99%
Calcium complexes with what to produced a purple color in calcium analyses Arsenazo III
Why is there a correction formula to "adjust" the calcium levels in calcium analyses low concentrations of albumin in the blood
Amount of enzyme that will catalyze the transformation of 1 mol of substrate under standard conditions U
What does alpha-amylase do hydrolyzes starch into smaller portions
What organ does alpha-amylase come from pancreas
Give a two word definition of an enzyme biological catalyst
Which enzyme works on the basis of electron transfer (oxidation reduction reactions) oxidioreductase
Which enzyme catalyzes the transfer of a group (amino group) transferase
Which enzyme catalyzes a cleavage with the addition of water hydrolases
Which enzyme hydrolyzes by elimination with the formation of a double bond lyases
Which enzyme promotes a geometric change isomerase
Which enzyme needs ATP for synthesis ligase
What are the 3 phases of enzyme measurement lag, linear, substrate depletion
Does alpha-amylase have an exocrine function or an endocrine function Exocrine
What substrate does alpha-amylase utilize complex carbs (CNPG3)
A 2 hour PP test stresses the system with a defined glucose load
What condition is screened with a 2 hour PP test gestational diabetes
How many grams of glucose are given with an oral glucose tolerance test 100g
Where in the red cell does glycosylation occur hemoglobin
Glycoslated hemoglobin allows a look at glucose levels in the blood over what period of time 4 months
The level of HgA1c is proportional to what 2 things the amount of glucose the RBC's come into contact with and the amount of glucose bound to hemoglobin
How are various forms of hemoglobin separated for analysis chromatography
What do you do for a GTT (oral glucose tolerance test) Fasting, drink/ eat glucose, draw blood at half hour and every hour after that up to 5 hours
Are the enzymes of metabolism tissue specific or plasma specific tissue
What does AST stand for Aspartate amino transferase
What is the old term for AST SGOT; serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase
What type of enzyme is AST transferase
Name 3 organs where you might find the highest levels of AST kidney, heart, liver
What is being transferred in the cardiac enzymes analysis with AST amino group
What type of enzymatic reaction is occurring in the second stage of the cardiac enzymes analysis with AST redox rxn
What is the solution to substrate depletion dilute enzyme
At what temperature do enzymes of metabolism work most effciently 37 degrees celsius
How many fatty acids are attached to a triglyceride molecule 3
Which type of enzymatic reaction occurs with the conversion of triglyceride to glycerol and FFA, and also the conversion of esterfied cholesterol to free cholesterol and FFA hydrolase
What is the advantage of having a cholesterol esterified? allows more cholesterol to transported in the lipoprotein
Which lipid determination is most affected by recent fat consumption triglyceride
What can cholesterol determinations assess? liver function, biliary function, intestinal absorption, CAD, thyroid function, adrenal disease
Name factors that can affect normal cholesterol levels stress, age, pregnancy, gender and hormone balance
A total cholesterol is the sum of the cholesterol carried by all the lipoprotiens
most cholesterol is carried by LDL
To determine the HDL fraction, what is used to get rid of LDL and VLDL interference magnesium ions and dextran sulfate
What organ is involved with lipoprotein assembly and disassembly liver
What is the healthy amount of total cholesterol <200mg/dL
Transports iron transferrin
Storage iron ferritin
Iron bound to transferrin serum iron
Decrease in serum iron means Iron deficiency anemia and chronic inflammatory conditions
Increase in serum iron means hemochromatosis, acute hepatitis, iron poisoning
What is TIBC Total iron binding capacity
What is SIBC saturated iron binding capacity (iron bound to transferrin)
What is UIBC unsaturated iron binding capacity (available sites)
What do you need for a total serum iron acidic medium --> dissociates to Fe3+ then reduction by hydroxyl amine hydrochloride --> Fe2+ add ferrozine = purple color
UIBC analyses
What % of a transferrin molecule is bound with iron at any given time 20-50%