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Speech 1a exam 2

directory a site that works by offering the user ever more specific categories of information from which to select
search engine a web site that works much like a traditional card catalog or index, allowing access to the World wide web through a subject or key word search
vertical search engine a web site that indexes world wide web information in a specific field
Boolean search an advanced web
stacks the collection of books in a library
card catalog a file of information about the books in a library; may be an index
periodical index a listing of bibliographical data for articles published in a group of magazines and/or journals during a given period
online database an electronic indexing resource that may include abstracts and/or the full texts of entries, in addition to bibliographic data
newspaper index a listing of bibliographical data for articles published in a newspaper (or group of newspapers) during a given period
preliminary bibliography a list of potential resources to be used in the preparation of a speech
illustration a story of anecdote that provides an example of an idea, issue, or problem a speaker is discussing
brief illustration an unelaborated example, often only a sentence or two long
extended illustration a detailed example
hypothetical illustration an example that might happen but that has not actually occurred
definition by classification a "dictionary definition" constructed by first placing a term in the general class to which it belongs and then differentiating it from all other members of that class
operation definition a statement that shows how something works or what it does
analogy a comparison between two things
literal analogy a comparison between two similar things
figurative analogy a comparison between two essentially dissimilar things that share some common feature on which the comparison depends
statistics numerical data that summarize facts or samples
primary source the original collector and interpreter of information or data
secondary source an individual, organization, or publication that reports information or data gathered by another entity
opinion a statement expressing an individuals attitudes, beliefs, or values
expert testimony an opinion offered by someone who is an authority on a subject
lay testimony an opinion or description offered by a non
literary quotation an opinion or description by a writer who speaks in a memorable and often poetic way
topical organization organization of the natural divisions in a central idea according to recency, primacy, complexity, or the speakers discretion
primacy arrangement of ideas from the most to the least important
recency arrangement of ideas from least to most important
complexity arrangement of ideas from the simple to the more complex
spatial organization organization based on location or position
cause and effect organization organization that focuses on a situation and its causes or a situation and its effects
problem and solution organization organization focused on a problem and then various solutions or a solution and the problems it would solve
soft evidence supporting material based mainly on opinion or inference; includes hypothetical illustrations, descriptions, explanations, definitions, and analogies
hard evidence factual examples and statistics
signpost a verbal or nonverbal signal that a speaker is moving from one idea to the next
internal preview a statement in the body of a speech that introduces and outlines ideas that will be developed as the speech progresses
internal summary a restatement in the body of a speech of ideas that have been developed so far.
credibility an audience's perception of a speaker as competent, trustworthy, knowledgeable, and dynamic
anecdote an illustration or brief story
rhetorical question a question intended to provoke thought, rather than elicit an answer
closure the quality of a conclusion that makes a speech "sound finished"
preparation outline a detailed outline of a speech that includes main ideas, subpoints, and supporting material, and that may also include specific purpose, introduction, blueprint, internal previews and summaries, transitions, and conclusion
mapping using geometric shapes to sketch how all the main ideas, subpoints, and supporting material of a speech relate to the central idea and to one another
standard outline form numbered and lettered headings and subheadings arranged hierarchically to indicate the relationships among parts of a speech
delivery outline condensed and abbreviated outline from which speaking notes are developed
During an interview, it is a good idea to start the meeting with sincere flattery.
Brianna is giving a speech on recent developments in long distance learning and she wants to make sure that she has the most recent information and statistics for her speech. All of the following would be good resources for her to find current information, except:
Evaluate Web resources against the following six criteria accountability, accuracy, objectivity, date, usability, and diversity.
The best interviewers combine both open and closed
An interview can be a good way to gather supporting material for a speech in all of the following circumstances, except: You have found enough supporting material in Web articles, but having an interview will lend the information an air of credibility
A vertical search engine is helpful in narrowing a search for speech material because it indexes vertically through one topic area.
In general, the best speeches gather most of their material from the speaker's knowledge and experiences.
Most of the floor space of a college library will be devoted to books
When using note cards to record notes on your resources, it is a good idea to do all of the following, except: put your bibliography information on a separate sheet.
Harrison is referencing a Web site that is maintained by a nonprofit group. What type of domain will the Web site have? .org
Larry is giving a speech and would like to quote a reputed expert that he found in a brief article, but he knows nothing about that person's credentials. What would be a good source for Larry to find more information about this expert? the Who's Who series
An MLA style documentation for an article in Time magazine would include all of the following, except: he publisher's city
The oldest and most frequently consulted periodical index is the Reader's Guide to Periodical Literature.
Anthony is a student in the humanities. It is likely that most of his classes will require him to use the ___ style of documentation. MLA
A preliminary bibliography will usually contain about ten or twelve resources.
about ten or twelve resources. The Public Affairs Information Service (P.A.I.S.)
Most audiences will give more respect to a speaker as an authority on a subject if he or she has firsthand knowledge of a subject.
When taking notes for a speech, the authors of the text recommend using note cards
Diane is doing research for a speech about the use of lead in lipsticks and other cosmetics. She likes one Web site she finds, which has reviews of new cosmetics and information about ingredients. However, she notices that the Web site also has paid adver up ads from the same cosmetic companies it is reviewing. What criteria will Diane need to consider before she can ascertain if this site is a credible source?
Luanne is a humanities student. She will most likely be asked to use the ___ style of documentation. MLA
The Reader's Guide is a periodical index.
According to the text, the use of a tape recorder during an interview can be a distractor during an interview.
The Superintendent of Documents number is used to reference government documents.
Identify the open ended question below:
Troy's bibliography lists the author's name, title, publisher, date of publication, and the library's call number. He must be referencing a book
A periodical index is listing of bibliographical data for articles published in a group of magazines and/or journals during a given time period.
All the following are criteria for evaluating Web resources, except: prevalence
The first step in preparing for an interview is to establish a purpose or an objective for it.
Marisol's library has an open stack policy. Which of the following is likely to happen to her?
Terry enters a search phrase using quotation marks and dates to search for only the most relevant, current information. What type of search strategy is Terry utilizing? Boolean search
All of the following are suggestions that can help you to use definitions more effectively, except: use a definition as an introduction.
Hillary used a statistic to show how education costs have increased under the current administration. She said if costs were to continue at this rate, the average American would have to pay ten times their average salary to send two kids to school twenty exploding
Multiple brief illustrations are used to suggest a trend or a norm.
Cheri is using an operational definition in her speech. What is this? explaining how something works or what it does
Illustrations tend to capture audience interest because they appeal to the emotions.
An opinion offered by someone who is an authority on a subject is called a(n) expert testimony.
All of the following are suggestions for using descriptions and explanations effectively in your speeches, except: use as much vivid description in your speech as you possibly can.
Joanne is making the point that her college town is a lot like her home town because both have a similar kind of government and share similar values, even if they are 1,000 miles away. What type of analogy is Joanne making? a literal analogy
To be truly skilled at selecting the best supporting material, you must demonstrate how the material affects audience members themselves.
George is considering statistics to use in his speech that he has gathered during his research. Which of the following sources would be considered the least reputable? special interest group
When it comes to humor in a speech, all of the following are true, except: humor can brighten up the most somber occasion.
When a beverage company uses a celebrity's opinion in their ads that their energy drink is the best one on the market, they are violating what rule of using opinions effectively? Be certain that any authority that you cite is an expert on the subject you are discussing.
Howie has more supporting material than he can use in his final five minute speech. How can he decide what to cut?
Michelle has decided to support her speech on breast cancer with lay testimony. Which of the following will be included in her speech? An interview with a woman who is a breast cancer survivor.
If you have had personal experience with your speech topic, it is best to be sure to describe your experience to your audience.
Suzanna used an illustration in her speech that was very much like a story with an opening, complications, climax, and a resolution. What type of illustration did she use? an extended illustration
In her speech, Rachel compares the coming of spring to the upcoming changes in her school's policies. What type of supporting material is she using to make her point? a figurative analogy.
Portia has a gift for helping her audience members to develop mental pictures of what she is talking about. In a speech, these word pictures are called descriptions.
Selecting the best supporting material means if you need to discuss principles and theories, explain them with concrete examples and specific statistics.
An analogy is a comparison between two things.
When using opinions it is important to do all of the following, except: use celebrity sources whenever possible.
All of the following are true of supporting materials, except: choose the type you have the most of and stick with it.
The most poignant testimony in a speech often comes in the form of lay testimony.
When choosing statistics to support your main points, remember that bigger is better.
An operational definition is a statement that shows how something works or what it does.
A good speaker makes his or her illustrations vivid and specific.
Kate's topic requires that she make predictions. What type of supporting material would help to make her argument convincing? expert testimony
All of the following are primary sources, except: a magazine article reporting on the findings of a study.
A speaker says "Imagine a world where the air is so polluted that playing outside is limited to certain hours during the day." What type of illustration is this speaker using? hypothetical illustration
A good description meets all of the following criteria, except: It is general.
A speaker who decides to put his most gripping statistic last is using the organizing principal of recency
A speaker who says, "Secondly, there has been a rapid increase in the number of accidents reported" is using what signpost strategy? enumerating.
Which of the following would be an example of a nonverbal transition? a pause
Preview statements tell the audience what the main ideas of the speech will be.
Presentation aids increase the likelihood that your listeners will attend to your signposting.
When organizing your supporting material, complexity means moving from simple to more complex material.
Barb has decided to organize her speech so that the simple information comes first, and the speech gets more complex as it progresses. What type of organizational strategy is she using? complexity
Rachel is giving a speech on methods for tackling chronic back pain. She is going to cover surgery, prescription painkillers, physical therapy, and acupuncture. In her opinion, acupuncture is the best approach, so she will cover this option last. What app recency
Michael is using the opinion of a nutritionist to support his thesis that diet sodas are making Americans fatter. What type of evidence is he using? soft evidence
A speaker from which of the following cultures would be most likely to take a circuitous route of illustration and parable when organizing a speech? Asian
A speaker who uses primacy is arranging ideas from the most to the least important.
____ is an example of integrating supporting material into a speech. "According to the Seattle Times of February 20, 2003, Representative Mike Cooper has proposed..."
Diana is addressing an audience that is hostile toward her central idea. Which of the following techniques for organizing her main ideas will help her to capture the attention of her audience? primacy
All of the following would be good transitional signposts for a speaker to use, except for ____, which may backfire. finally
Carter works for the Forest Preserve District and is giving a speech about the layout of forests and national parks in the local area for residents. What approach to organizing his main ideas did Carter choose? spatial organization
Cause and effect organization is used when your central idea can be developed by discussing either steps or reasons.
hen organizing your supporting material primacy means the most important material first.
An example of the strategy of enumerating is "First, there has been a rapid increase in the number of accidents reported."
Julie wants to put her most important idea first because she believes that it will lessen the possibility that she will lose any members of her audience. What principle is she using to organizing her speech? primacy.
Of all the following cultures, which speakers tend to be the most direct? U.S.
Will's topic has natural divisions. He will probably choose to arrange his speech topically.
Connie uses a statistic about traffic accidents in her city to support her speech about the need for more traffic lights. What type of evidence is she using to support her arguments? hard
Portia explodes a statistic that she has on the impact of credit card debt in order to show the impact that debt can have over time. What is the strategy Portia is using to organize her material? specificity
Beatrice is giving a speech explaining how to begin to construct a family tree. What is the best way for her to arrange the ideas in her presentation? from the simple to the more complex.
Jerome can't stop thinking about the last example given during a presentation he attended on why it is important to start saving for retirement at a young age. Which speech organization principle has affected Jerome? recency
Nows that we know the benefits that eating a balanced diet can bring, what can we do to get more of these healthy foods into our meals? is an example of an internal preview.
Kerri begins her speech with a sweeping statistic about teenage drug use in America. She then compacts the statistic to make it more accessible to the audience. What strategy is Kerri using for organizing her supporting material? specificity
Ron is a subtle speaker. He uses a change in facial expression to signal a(n) nonverbal transition.
"Now that we have discussed the problems caused by illiteracy, let's look at some of the possible solutions" is an example of using internal summaries and previews.
All of the following are examples of signposts, except: problem
Effective conclusions may contain all of the following, except: unplanned remarks
A conclusion should be all of the following, except: spontaneous.
Derrick is a speaker in a symposium, and the speaker on stage before him gives a presentation very similar to the one he wants to present. What strategy can Derrick use to help him transition to his speech? reference to preceding speeches
When it comes to a speech's introduction, which of the following is true? personal reference are effective at establishing a bond between the speaker and the audience.
Ken would like to establish proximity with his audience. Which of the following would he do? Establish why the topic is of vital personal concern to his listeners.
Quinn begins his speech by asking "how many of us in this room can honestly say we never felt overwhelmed during freshman year in college?" What technique is Quinn using to begin his speech? rhetorical question
A good speaker uses the introduction to tell the audience what he or she is going to tell them. The reason for doing this is to preview your main ideas.
Credibility is all of the above.
Which of the following actions would be most likely to cause listeners to "tune out?" saying "In conclusion..."
All of the following are good possible speech introductions, except: "Today I am going to talk to you about..."
Humor is appropriate when used with discretion.
The best way to give your audience a reason to listen is to tell your listeners how the topic directly affects them.
Kevin said that the speaker they heard bookended the speech nicely. What did he mean? The speaker made a reference to the introduction in the conclusion that tied the speech together.
When it comes to using quotations in an introduction, all of the following are true, except: don't worry about naming the author of the quote, if you have cited this in your notes.
In the conclusion, the main idea should be restated.
Troy referenced the "This Day in History" site to get some ideas for his introduction. What strategy did Troy decide to use? eference to historical events
To use a well worded closing phrase and to provide a final illustration, quotation, or personal reference is a technique to
Harry restated his main ideas in his conclusion. Was this a good idea? yes
Adam is giving a speech in which he wants to motivate the audience to respond by acting. What strategy should he use? Urge the audience to think about the topic or to research it further. Suggest appropriate action.
All of the following are true, except: A conclusion should summarize your speech and provide closure.
Patricia has been asked to give a speech at a 90th birthday party. Which of the following strategies would probably be most appropriate for her introduction? a reference to a historical event
An anecdote is an illustration or brief story.
In the introduction, it is important to remember all of the following, except: the statement of the central idea can be left for the body of the speech.
Using quotations to introduce a speech is a common practice.
Which of the following would be used in an introduction for the purpose of getting the audience's attention? a question
In general, humor in an introduction can help relax your audience and win their goodwill for the rest of the speech.
When Chandra begins speaking, her audience members have a powerful feeling that the message concerns them directly. This means that Chandra has done a good job of establishing proximity.
A good speaker can use this technique to cue the audience that the speech is coming to an end: signal with a falling vocal inflection that this is the last statement.
Jackson wants to establish credibility with his audience. He should offer his credentials. Tell his listeners about his commitment to his topic.
A preview statement usually comes near the end of the introduction.
A delivery outline should include the introduction and conclusion in a shortened form.
Standard outline numbering follows which logical sequence? I., A. 1., a.
One of the hardest things for an audience to forgive is a speaker who goes on too long.
Your introduction should make up abou 20% of your speaking time.
Keith is writing a preparation outline. Where does his specific purpose belong? at the top of the outline
A detailed outline of a speech that includes main ideas, subpoints, and supporting material, and that may also include the specific purpose, introduction, blueprint, internal previews and summaries, transitions, and conclusion is called the preparation outline.
Mapping is use of geometric shapes to sketch how all the main ideas, subpoints, and supporting material of a speech relate to the central idea and to one another.
It is important to say things as succinctly as possible. Which of the following will be a more succinct way of saying "due to the fact that"? because
Marty's speech is too long. He realizes that instead of wanting to have his audience be able to list and describe five advantages of eating a vegetarian diet, he will have to cut his remarks to cover three advantages. What aspect of his speech did Marty c He reviewed his specific purpose.
All of the following apply to an outline that is written according to standard outline format, except: Use short phrases, rather than full sentences for subpoints.
_____note card/cards will give you enough space for a delivery outline. Two or three
When it comes to speaking notes, all of the following are fine, except: a word for word script of your speech.
Barb advises Marty to cut the parts of his speech that are on organic farming, a topic she believes will be least interesting to his listeners. What advice is Barb giving Marty for editing his speech? Consider your audience.
A(n) _____ outline serves as the basis for speaking notes. delivery
A delivery outline serves as the basis for speaking notes.
A delivery outline includes supporting materials
Paula wants her audience to be able to list and describe ten reasons that Southwest Airlines is doing well while their competitors are in bankruptcy. However, her speech is too long. Where should she begin to edit it? Review her purpose statement.
Each point in a standard outline format should have at least _____ subdivisions, if any. two
Considering your audience when editing will help you to decide what information will be most interesting to your listeners.
A conclusion generally makes up __% of a speech. 10
Michael is a visual learner and he often remembers things in terms of pictures. He uses geometric shapes to sketch how all the main ideas, subpoints, and supporting material of his speech relate to the central idea and to one another. This is called mapping.
A preparation outline is different from a delivery outline because it contains complete sentences.
When creating a preparation outline, you place the specific purpose at the top of your outline.
Good delivery notes would include all of the following, except: five
How can a speaker say "in the course of" more succinctly? during
A delivery outline should be written in standard outline form
John's speech is too long and needs to be edited. All of the following would be good options for him to consider to help him shorten the speech, except: cut out all supporting material
When using note cards to deliver your speech, consider all of the following except: write your notes on both sides
Which of the following is most likely to be written out in full on a delivery outline? the first sentence of your speech
Created by: raisin16