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Chem 105 Final

endothermic processes fusion (melting), vapourization, sublimation
exothermic processes freezing, condensation, deposition
What are the rate factors? surface area, temperature, concentration, catalysis
How does surface area affect rate? more area for reactions to occur
How does temperature affect rate? increase in temperature increases the amount of collisions
How does concentration affect rate? more atoms ion an area, more collision
How does catalysis affect rate? increases reaction rate, isnt consumed
What is Le Chatelier's Principle?
What are Arrhenius acids? give off H+ in water
What are Arrhenius bases? give off OH- in water
What are Lewis Acids? e- pair acceptor
What are Lewis Bases? e- pair donor
What are BL acids? donate H+
What are BL Bases? accept H+
What are conjugate species?
What are amphiprotic species? can be acidic or basic
What is the common ion effect?
What is an anode? loses e-
What is a cathode? gains e-
what is a voltaic cell? devices that use spontaneous redox reactions to produce electricity.
What is Entropy(S)?
What is an ionic solid? metal and nonmetal
What is a metal solid? metal and metal
What is a covalent-network (molecular) solid? non-metal and non-metal
What are the types of metal structures? bcc, fcc/ccp, hcp
What is alloy substitutional
What is interstiual?
What is heterogenous(multiphase)?
What is intermetallic compound? strict ratio, jet engine
What are examples of ionic solids? CsCl, NaCl, ZnS.
What is the cn of CsCl? 8
What is the cn of NaCl? 6
What is the cn of ZnS? 4
What are examples of covalent solids? ice, quartz, diamond, graphite, (semiconductors-metalloids)
What are the 4 kinds of nuclear decay? alpha particle and beta particle emission, electron capture emission and positron emission
What is nuclear transmutation? conversion of stable nuclei into other nuclei
What does amphiprotic mean? examples? compounds that can act as either acids of a base. eg. water, H2SO4, HCO3.
what are the strong acids? HCl, HBr, HI, HNO3, HClO4
what are the strong bases? NaOH, KOH, Ca(OH2), Sr(OH)2, and Ba(OH)2
what are the neutral ions? Na+, K+, Ca, Sr, Ba, Cl-, Br-, I-, NO3, ClO4
cation is ___ acidic
anion is ____ basic
for ionic salts mp decreases as radius increases
Sgas increases by increasing pressure
Ssolid increases by increasing temperature
change of n c+d-a-b
Ssalt decreases if a common ion is in solution (moves toward left when adding new common ion)
Ssalt with a basic anion increases as pH decreases (more acidic)
Ssalt with an acidic anion increases as pH increases (more basic)
Ssalt with acidic cations and basic anions increases as pH increases and decreases
half reactions the number of electrons must cancel
steps to balance half reactions 1. balance elements 2. balance O by water 3. balance H by H+ 4. balace charge by e-
What type of properties are voltages? intensive like density
What voltage is a lead acid battery 12V,
What is a primary cell? non-rechargeable. Alkaline (1.5 V)
What is a secondary cell? rechargeable, lithium battery (3.7V)
thermodynamics? study of transformations of energy
S translational g-high, l-low, solid-none
S rot g-medium, l-low, solid-none
Svib g-low, l-low, solid-low
Stotal g-high, l-low, solid-very low
If H is neg, S positive sponatneous at all T
H pos, S neg not spont at any T
H pos, S pos spontaneous if T>h/s
H neg, S neg spontaneous if T<h/s
metals are: shiny, crystalline, feel cold, high electrical conductivity, are maluable, and ductile
What are the three common atomic arrangements? bcc, fcc/ccp, hcp
What is an alloy? a metal containing more than one element
What are the alloy categories by structure? substiutional alloy, interstitial alloy, heterogeneous alloy, and intermetallic compound alloy
be able to draw alloy categories
What are ionic salts stacked arrays of ions (can be atomic or molecular) just have to have a charge
What are the ionic salt structures? CsCl (8), NaCl(6), ZnS (4)
What and how semiconductors? Si, Ge, GaN, GaHs. 4 coordinate diamond (ZnS). valence not localized-slightly metallic
what is a polymer? a 1D covalent-network solid made by covalently bonding monomers.
What are the synthetic polymers(plastics)? polyethylene, polypropylene, polyvinyl chloride
natural polymers wool, rubber, silk, leather, cellulose
what are nucleons? protons, and neutrons
what is a nuclide? nucleus with a specific composition
what is redioactivity? the spontaneous loss of matter/energy by materials having suitable atomic isotopes, unstable nuclides
what is nuclear transmutaion? conversion of stable nuclei into other nuclei
what is the heaviest element made? Oganesson
what is the SI unit of radioactiviy? Bq
What are radiotracers? readioisotopes used to trace the path of elements, especially in biological samples.
What is used for PET scans? F-18
What is used in other imaging (heart, l) Technecium-99
Why does nuclear reaction give off so much energy? that mass is lost/gained , mass lost is converted to energy
esothermic reactions are usually: fission and fusion
What is fission splitting of heavy nuclei
What is fusion? merging of light nuclei
What is ionizing radiation? alpha and beta
what is radon? radioactive noble gas wich collects in basements
Created by: abc273