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Acid Bases

What are the properties of an acid? -Contain more H+ than OH- ions -pH less than 7 (acidic) -Taste sour -Turn litmus red -Conduct electricity (are electrolytes) -React with metals to produce hydrogen gas
What are the properties of a base? -Contain more OH- than H+ ions -pH greater than 7 (alkaline) -Taste bitter, feel slippery -Turn litmus blue -Conduct electricity (are electrolytes) -React with acids to produce a salt and water
What is an Arrhenius acid? contains H+ in formula (example: HNO3)
What is an Arrhenius base? contains OH- in formula (example: NaOH)
What is a Bronsted-Lowery acid? donates H+ (example: HCl)
What is a Bronsted-Lowery base? accepts H+ (example: NH3)
What are the three rules for writing acid names from formulas? 1) H + anion ending in –ide: Acid name is “hydro_____ic acid” 2) H + anion ending in –ate: Acid name is “_____ic acid” 3) H + anion ending in –ite: Acid name is “_____ous acid”
What is an acid that contains oxygen in the formula? oxyacid
What do you need to do to go from acid name to the formula? would just work backwards, using the 3 rules above. Acid formulas must be criss-crossed, so that the charges equal out to zero.
What are the roots when the anion contains sulfur or phosphorus? sulfur- and phosphor-
What are hydroxide bases composed of and how are the names written? composed of a cation (positive ion) followed by hydroxide (OH-) Name the cation and then add “hydroxide.
What is the formula for ammonia? NH3
How are base formulas written from the name? Find the formula for the cation and then add OH -, need to criss-cross the formula so that the charges equal out to zero.
What do strong acids and bases do in aqeuous solutions? ionize completely to produce free H+ or free OH- ions
What are examples of strong electrolytes? strong acids, strong bases, and soluble salts
What are the strong acids? -HCl -HBr -HI -HIO4 -HClO4 -HClO3 -HNO3 -H2SO4
What are the strong bases? Group I and II soluble hydroxides
What is the pH scale? pH is a numerical scale, typically ranging from 0-14. pH gives us a quantitative measure of the acidity or basicity of the aqueous solution.
How do we find pH? pH = - log10 [H+], where [H+] is they hydrogen ion concentration
How do we find pOH? pOH = - log10 [OH-], where [OH-] is they hydroxide ion concentration
What does the relationship between pH and pOH tell us? Because [H+] x [OH]= 1.0 x 10 ^-14 pH+pOH= 14
What type of reaction is a neutralization reaction? Double replacement between an acid and a base
What are the products of a neutralization reaction? salt (ionic compound) + water
What is a solution where [H+]=[OH-]? Neutral
What is a solution where [H+]>[OH-]? Acidic, more H+
What is a solution where [H+]<[OH-]? Basic, more OH-
What are some examples of common household acids? lemon juice and other citrus juices, tomato juice, vinegar, carbonated beverages
What are some examples of common household bases? ammonia, drain cleaner. antacids, bleach, baking soda, and soaps/shampoos
Created by: msbaker