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Chemistry Ch. 5

Thermochemistry

TermDefinition
System A specific amount of matter that is being studied
Surroundings Everything outside of the system
Open system A system that can transfer energy and matter to its surroundings
Closed system A system that can transfer energy, but not matter, to its surroundings
Isolated system A system that does not transfer energy or matter to its surroundings
Work The energy required to move and object over some distance
Equation for work w = (F)(d)
Force due to gravity F = (m)(g)
Gravitational potential energy w = (m)(g)(h)
State function The value depends only on the present state of the system, not the path it took to get there
Endothermic Heat flows into the system from its surroundings (+ΔE)(+ΔH)
Exothermic Heat flows from the system into its surroundings (-ΔE)(-ΔH)
Internal energy (E) The sum of all kinetic and potential energies of the components of the system
ΔE Change in internal energy = (initial E) - (final E)
Relating ΔE to heat and work ΔE = q + w
Enthalpy (H) A thermodynamic function used to account for the heat flow during a constant pressure process
Equation for enthalpy H = E + PV
Pressure-volume work Work performed by expansion of a gas against a resisting pressure
P-V work when pressure is constant w = –P ΔV
Calorimeter A device used to measure heat flow
Heat capacity (C) The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of a sample of matter by 1 K
Molar heat capacity (Cm) The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one mole of a substance by 1 K
Specific heat (Cs) The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one gram of a substance by 1 K
Equation for specific heat Cs = (q)/(mΔT)
Equation for heat gain or loss q = m x Cs x ΔT
Created by: jabflat