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Chemistry

Acid/Bases/Salts

Acids Properties pH less than 7 sour taste turn blue litmus red react with bases to form salt and water produce H+/H3O+ ions
Bases Produce OH- ions pH more than 7 bitter taste turn red litmus blue reacts with acids to form salt and water
Arrhenius Acid a chemical compound that increases the concentration of hydrogen ions H+/H3O+, in an aqueous solution
Arrhenius Base a substance that increases the concentration of hydroxide ions OH-, in aqueous solution
Bronsted-Lowry Acid a molecule or an ion that is a proton donor(H+)
Monoprotic Acids an acid that can donate only one proton
Polyprotic Acid an acid that can donate more than one proton per molecule
Diprotic can donate two protons per molecule
Triprotic can donate three protons per molecule
Conjugate Base the ion or molecule that remains after a Bronsted-Lowry acid has given up a proton is the conjugate base of that acid
Conjugate Acid the ion or molecule that is formed when a Bronsted-Lowry base gains a proton is the conjugate acid of that base
The stronger an acid is the weaker it's conjugate base
The stronger a base is the weaker it's conjugate acid
What is the strongest acid that can exist in an aqueous solution? H3O+
What is the strongest base that can exist in an aqueous solution? OH- ion
Lewis Acid an atom, ion, or a molecule that accepts an electron pair to form a covalent bond
How many acid base theories are there? 3
Lewis Base an atom, ion, or a molecule that donates an electron pair to form a covalent bond
Ion-product constant (Kw) the product of the molar concentrations of H+ and OH- ions at a particular temperature
What determines the strength of an acid or base? ionization
How much do acids ionize? strong acids ionize 100% whereas weak acids ionize less than even 5%
Memorize (among the only known strong acids) HNO3 HCl HBr HI H2SO4 HClO4
Strong Electrolyte 100% dissociation
Weak Electrolyte not completely dissociated (<5% dissociation)
Strong bases and electrolytes Group 1 Metal Hydroxides Ca, Sr, Ba hydroxides
Neutralization chemical reaction between an acid and a base
What can salts be? neutral, acidic, or basic
Neutral Solutions salts containing an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal ion (except (Be2+) and the conjugate base of a strong acid
Basic Solutions salts derived from a strong base and a weak acid
Acid Solutions salts derived from a strong acid and a weak base
Titration analytical method in which a standard solution (known concentration) is used to determine the concentration of an unknown solution
End Point point at which an indicator changes color during a titration
Equivalence Point point at which equal moles of H3O+ and OH- have been added
Why do many medicines have a bitter taste? they are probably bases
What must an Arrhenius acid contain? hydrogen and dissociate in aqueous solutions to produce hydrogen ions
Highest pH most basic
Lower pH more acidic (more H+)
High pH less acidic (more OH-)
Red to Blue base
Blue to Red acid
PT to pink base
Pt to no color change acid
Strong Acid + Strong Base neutral salt
Strong Acid + Weak Base acidic salt
Weak Acid + Strong Base basic salt
Weak Acid + Weak Base will produce any type of solution depending on the relative strengths of the acid and base involved
pH range of 0-7 acidic
pH 7 neutral
pH 7-14 basic
Strong acid has higher H+ concentration and higher pH value
Created by: jordinlevy