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Chemistry Exam 1- BL

accuracy measure of how close the measurement is to the "true"value
precision measure of how close together repeated measurements are to eachother
volume measure of how much three dimensional space a substance, especially gas or liquid occupies
electrolytes ions dissolved in water
formula unit for ionic compounds of an ionic compound represents the ration of cation to anion in the lattice
formula mass for ionic compounds sum of atomis masses of ions in formula unit (amu)
molecular mass for covalent compounds sum of atomic masses of atoms in molecular formula (amu)
properties of nonmetals -low melting point -hydrogen=nonmetal -own color -brittle -nonconductive -reduction
element substance somposed of only one type of atom, cannot be broken down into simpler form -109 known elements -90 unknown elements
lattice structure every cation is surrounded by anions; every anion surrounded by cations
matter anything that has maass and occupies volume
momatomic ion ion formed from a single atom
diatomic molecules molecules composed of two atoms
molecular formula a covalent compound that has definite & unique composition -gives limited info -doesnt indiciate arrangement of atoms or covalent bonds
NH4 ammoniun (cation)
H3O Hydronuim (cation)
OH hydroxide (anion)
NO3 nitrate(anion)
CN cyanide (anion)
HCO3 hydrogen carbonate (anion)
HSO4 hydrogen sulfate (anion)
CO3 (2-) carbonate ion (anion)
PO4 (3-) phosphate ion (anion)
Guidelines for determining formula unit for ionic compound 1. determine charge on cation 2. determine charge of anion (group #-8) 3.insert subscripts CA2+cl = CaCl2 4.divide by common divisor Mg2O2= MgO 5. Double check if neutral or not (cation charge x subscript) + anion charge x subscript)
naming ionic compounds -metal first, nonmetal second -take off ending add -ide to nonmetal -if multiple #, NaCl3; add the charge as roman numeral- Sodium (III0 Chloride -if compound has lower charge add-ous -if compound has higher chharge add- ic
naming covalent compounds prefixes 1-mono 2-di 3-tri 4-tetra 5-penta 6-hexa 7-hecta 8-oct 9-nona 10-deca ex: nitrogen oxide =NO nitrogen dioxide =NO2
polyatomic ions ions made up of a group of atoms then a single atom
allotrope different forms of the element within the same phase -O2 & O3 -P- white; burns in air (r &b exist) Carbon - grahite, diamond, c60 (soccerball)
density physical property of mater often used to characterize a substance or material ... d=m/v
properties of metals -solids -metallic luster -malleability -ductile -conduct electricity -dense -oxidation
covalent bonds two nonmetals come together & share valence E -neutral -E are shared -2 or more nonmetals -discrete(individual)
ionic compound formed when a metal atom transfers some or all of its valence electrons to a nonmettal -cation/anion -metal and nonmetal -electrostatic -dimensional lattice of oppisitely charged atoms
mass measure of the amt of matter
mass, location & charge of: P , E, & N P= nuclues, positive, 1.6726x 10^-24 E= electron cloud, negative, 9.108 x10 ^-28 N=nuetral, nucleus, 1.750 x 10 ^24
average atomic mass weighted average of the mass of its isoptopes based on their natural adundance
calcuate average mass avg=(%x100)(mass1) + (%x100)(mass2)
ion atom that has lost or gained one or more valence electrons -positive or negative
compound substance composed of two or more diff types of atoms held together in a unique proportion -broken down through chemical reactions
nonbonding or lone pairs electrons that dont share an electron
ionic bond electrostatic attraction that holds ions together
ionization process when metals lose electrons
molar mass mass of one mole of an element or comound
pure substance substance composed of only one compound or element
change F to C (f-32)5/9
Change C to F 9/5(C + 32)
Change C to K add 273
Change K to C -273
isotopes atoms with the same number of protons but a different # of neutrons
atoms smallest particle that retains the properties of an element - atom is to element as molecule is to compound
molecule smallest particle retainnig properties of the compound, but, some elements exist as molecules in their stable form
a-s=us unshared atoms
atomic number # of protons an atom contains
dimensional analysis considers the units (dimensions) to set-up the calculation supplied x req/supplied = req
chemical properties refer to its behavior in the presence of other chemical substances -transorms substances into new substance
every measurement consists of: # & a unit
nanoscale & atomic scale describes matter too small to be seen even with a microscope
scientific notation used to express really small # or really big #
SF: x & / never give more SF in the answer than least # given
SF: + & - never give more after the decimal than the least number given after the decimal
micronutrients required in quanities of less than 100mg/day
the mole 6.02 x 10^23 aka avagrados number
anion # of electrons greater than the number of protons -neg charged -nonmetals gain electrons to becom anions
cation less than the number of protons -positively charged -metals lose electrons to becom cations
electron orbital region of space where electrons are found
energy levels lower the lectrons on the shells; lower the energy -three orbitals
elements to the right of the periodic table... gain electrons
temperature measure of the intensity of heat
diatomic molecules found in nature BrINClHOF bromine iodine nitrogen chlorine hydrogen oxygen flourine
bohr model thought electroms orbitied around the nucleus like planets around the sun
electron configuration levels 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 4p6
outershell & innershell electrons outer- valence electrons inner- core lelectrons
elements on the left of the periodic table.. drop electrons
heat form of energy
inert unreactive
octect rule prediction of a molecule structure of a molecule by arranging electrons so that each atoom has a full outermost shell
significant figures all the certian digits as well as the one uncertian digit
electrostatic attraction "glue" that holds ions together - force of attraction btwn oppositely charged entities (cation & anion)
physcial properties properties we observe or measure without considering how the element interacts
weight weight depends on gravitational pull
macronutrients elements required in large quanities . more than 100mg/day
lewis dot structure represent a pair of bonding electrons with dots or lines
mass number sum of protons & neurons of the isotopes
metric conversion mathemetical transformation of a value in one metric unit (supplied unit) into another metric unit( requested unit)
macroscopic scale all material you can see
covalance how many bonds commonly found
periodicity property of elements in the same column ( similiar physical & chemical)
margin of error conveyed in the number of digits reported in the # -10lb -10.0lb -10.00lb
valence electrons # of electrons in the outermost shell of an atom -equal to group #
N-A=S n= # of E needed A= # of E available S= # of E shared
microscopic scale cannot be seen by the naked eye
guidelines for sig figs 1.nonzeros sig (3.45= 3SF) 2.Trap zeros are sig ( 3.05 =3 SF) 3. zeros following nonzero & decimal pt sig (0.400 = 3SF)(4.0 - 2 SF) 4. no decimal -zeros not sig (6,000 = 1 SF) 5. Zeros that appear before nonzeros not sig (0.00040 = 2 SF) 6. all # in SN
Created by: britlat