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TRIPLE 4

TRIPLE AQA chapter 15 Haber Process

QuestionAnswer
What is meant by the term “dynamic equilibrium”? both forward and back reactions occur at same time (1) at same rate (1)
Hydrogen reacts with nitrogen to produce ammonia. 3H2(g) + N2(g) <=> 2NH3(g) Give the meaning of <=> in the equation reversible reaction/reaction goes both ways
What is the source of the hydrogen used in the Haber process? Natural gas (although in the future we may use electrolysis of water)
What is the source of the nitrogen used in the Haber process? Air
When nitrogen reacts with hydrogen, the amount of ammonia gradually increases until it becomes constant. N2(g) + 3H2(g) 2NH3(g) Explain why the amount of ammonia remains constant. the rate of the forward reaction is the same as the rate of the backward reaction
What are the conditions used in industry for the Haber process? The pressure used in industry is about 200 atmospheres, teh temperature is around 450Celsius and an Iron catalyst is used
Even at 450C, the reaction between nitrogen and hydrogen to form ammonia is very slow. State what is used in industry to overcome this problem. use an (iron) catalyst
How is the Ammonia removed from the mixture? Lowering the temperature until the Ammonia condenses (liquefies) whilst Nitrogen and Hydrogen remain gaseous; then open the tap
What happens to the unreacted N2 and H2 gases? They are fed back into the reactor
N2(g) + 3H2(g) <=> 2NH3(g) Explain the effect on the equilibrium yield of ammonia, when the Haber process is carried out at a pressure higher than 200 atm YIELD=SHIFT; use model answer “system will counteract change by” decreasing the pressure(1); we know that there are more molecules=more pressure (1)so equilibrium moves to right-hand side where there are more molecules(1) and yield will increase
N2(g) + 3H2(g) <=> 2NH3(g) Explain the effect on the RATE of attainment of equilibrium, when the process is carried out at a pressure higher than 200 atm increased pressure=more particles in the same volume= more frequent collisions=higher rate (remember to answer the question: do not simply say “faster reaction”?)
In the manufacture of ammonia, NH3, a pressure of 200 atm is used. Using a higher pressure would mean that more ammonia would be formed at equilibrium. Give two reasons why a higher pressure is not used in industry? uses more energy (1) requires more powerful pumps (1) thicker-walled pipes needed (1) risk of explosion (1)
The forward reaction producing ammonia is exothermic. Explain what would happen to the yield of ammonia at equilibrium if the temperature was increased. use model answer “system will counteract change by”a decreasing the temperature; we know that forward is exo so equilibrium moves to left-hand side/endothermic direction (1) and yield will decrease
N2(g) + 3H2(g) <=> 2NH3(g) Explain the effect on the RATE of attainment of equilibrium, when the process is carried out at a temperature higher than 450C increased temprature=particles move faster= more frequent collisions AND more SUCCESSFUL (violent/sticky) collisions=higher rate (remember to answer the question: do not simply say “faster reaction”?)
Which three elements are found in fertilisers? Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium (NPK)
Which salts bring Nitrogen? (give name and formula) Ammonium Nitrate (NH4)(NO3) and Ammonium Phosphate (NH4)3(PO4)
Which salts bring Phosphorus? (give name and formula) Ammonium Phosphate (NH4)3(PO4) and Calcium Phosphate Ca3(PO4)2
Which salts bring Potassium? (give name and formula) Potassium Chloride KCl and Potassium Sulfate K2(SO4)
Which 2 salts are made when Phosphate rock is treated with Sulfuric Acid? Calcium Sulfate Ca(SO4) and Calcium Phosphate Ca3(PO4)2 (aka single superphosphate)
Which salt is made when Phosphate rock is treated with Nitric Acid? Calcium Nitrate Ca(NO3)2
Which salt is made when Phosphate rock is treated with Phosphoric Acid? Calcium Phosphate Ca3(PO4)2 (aka triple superphosphate)
Write the equation between Ammonia and Phosphoric Acid (H3PO4) 3 NH3 + H3(PO4) ->(NH4)3(PO4)
Write the equation between Ammonia and Nitric Acid NH3 + HNO3 -> (NH4)(NO3)
Write the equation between Ammonia and Sulfuric Acid 2 NH3 + H2SO4 -> (NH4)2(SO4)
Created by: ursulinechem2