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CGSE 9 electrolysis

AQA GCSE chapter 06 Electrolysis

QuestionAnswer
What is the element collected at the negative electrode during electrolysis of water? Hydrogen
What are the products of electrolysis of Brine Chlorine and Hydrogen and Sodium Hydroxide
Describe the test to show that a gas is Chlorine Blue Litmus paper turns red then white
What is the definition of electrolysis? The breaking down of compound into its element using an electric current
Describe the test to show that a gas is Oxygen A glowing splint will relight
What is the compound of Oxygen and Hydrogen? Water
What is the element collected at the negative electrode during electrolysis of brine? Hydrogen
What is the element collected at the positive electrode during electrolysis of brine? Chlorine
What are the products of electrolysis of acidified water Hydrogen and Oxygen
Describe how you would carry out an electrolysis of water experiment connect two electrodes to a power pack/battery; Place the electrodes in a beaker of water; place two test-tube full of water above the electrodes; switch on the current and collect the gases in the test-tubes
What are the products of electrolysis of HydroChloric Acid Hydrogen and Chlorine
Describe the test to show that a gas is Hydrogen Place a splint in the test-tube and there will be a pop
What is the formula of Oxygen gas? O2
What is the formula of Hydrogen gas? H2
What is the formula of Chlorine gas? Cl2
Write the balanced equation for the electrolysis of Water into Hydrogen and Oxygen 2 H2O --> 2 H2 + O2
What safety precaution should youtake when testing for Chlorine Gas. Why? Well ventilated room with a draught or a fume cupboard. Chlorine is toxic
What is Chlorine gas used for? Making PVC plastics
What is the definition of electrolysis? The breaking down of an ionic compounds into its elements by direct current
What do you call the substance broken down by electrolysis an electrolyte
What type of bonding is present in compounds that can be electrolysed (ie in electrolytes) Giant ionic
Why must the electrolyte be melted or dissolved before the electrolysis can take place? so that the CHARGED ions can MOVE; in the solid giant ionic compound, CHARGED ions can not MOVE
What is the name of the negative electrode? Cathode is the negCATive electrode
What is the name of the positive electrode? It is not the negCATive, so the name is Anode
Which ions move to the Anode? Non-metal Anions, they are Negative (remember "NANA gave up and burned")and are attracted to the positive electrode
Which ions move to the Cathode? metal cations, they are positive (remember "NANA gave up and burned") and are attracted to teh negative electrode
Describe the reaction at the Cathode The metal ION gains electrons to become metal ATOM. Did you use "NANA gave up and burned" to help you remember? (make sure that you write the names of the particles: ION into ATOM)
Describe the reaction at the Anode The non-metal ION loses electrons to become metal ATOM. Did you use "NANA gave up and burned" to help you remember? (make sure that you write the names of the particles: ION into ATOM)
What will be collected at the electrodes during the electrolysis of MOLTEN sodium chloride? Sodium (metal) at the Cathode and Chlorine (non-metal) at the Anode
What will be collected at the electrodes during the electrolysis of a SOLUTION of sodium chloride? Hydrogen at the Cathode because Sodium is a reactive metal. Chlorine at the Anode as it is a Halogen
What is the mnemotechnic that helps you remember the movement of ions in solutions? NANA gave up and burned. Nonmetal Anions are Negatively charged and go to the Anode; the anions give up their electrons as they are oxidised (burn)
What is the acronym that helps you remember the definition of oxidation and reduction in terms of electrons? OILRIG. Oxidation Is Loss of electrons and Reduction Is Gain of electrons
Which ions are oxidised and which are reduced during electrolysis? Metals ions gain electrons so are oxidised and non-metal ions lose electrons so are reduced. Did you use "NANA gave up and burned" to help you remember?
What will be collected at the Cathode during the electrolysis of a MOLTEN salt? The metal ion moves to the cathode so a metal will be collected
What will be collected at the Anode during the electrolysis of a MOLTEN salt? The non-metal ion moves to the anode so a non-metal will be collected
What will be collected at the Cathode during the electrolysis of a SOLUTION? Both the metal ion and the hydrogen ion (from water) move to the cathode; Either a metal low in the reactivity series OR hydrogen gas
What will be collected at the Anode during the electrolysis of a SOLUTION? Both the non-metal ion and the hydroxide ion (from water) move to the cathode; Either a Halogen OR Oxygen gas
Balance the half-equation; charged aluminium ions into aluminium metal: Al^+3 --> Al Al^+3 + 3 e^- --> Al
Balance the half-equation; charged sodium ions into sodium metal: Na^+ --> Na Na^+ + 1 e^---> Na
Balance the half-equation; charged Magnesium ions into Magnesium metal: Mg^+2 --> Mg Mg^+2 + 2 e^- --> Mg
Balance the half-equation; charged hydrogen ions into hydrogen gas: H^+ --> H2 2 H^+ + 2 e^---> H2 (you need to balance the atoms first, before balancing the charges)
Balance the half-equation; charged chloride ions into chlorine gas: Cl^- --> Cl2 2 Cl^- --> Cl2 + 2e- (you need to balance the atoms first, before balancing the charges)
Balance the half-equation; charged bromide ions into liquid bromine: Br^- --> Br2 2 Br^- --> Br2 + 2e- (you need to balance the atoms first, before balancing the charges)
Balance the half-equation; charged oxide ions into oxygen gas: O^-2 --> O2 2 O^-2 --> O2 + 4e- (you need to balance the atoms first, before balancing the charges)
Balance the half-equation; charged hydroxide oxide ions into oxygen gas and water: OH^- --> O2 + H2O 4 OH^- --> O2 + 2 H2O + 4e- (I have no trick for that one: you’d better learn it!)
What are the ions in a solution of Copper Chloride? Sodium, Chloride, and Hydrogen and Hydroxide ions; the latter 2 come from the water
To which electrode do the ions in MOLTEN Copper Chloride move to? Copper is a metal, so the copper ion will move to the Cathode. Chloride is a non-metal ion and will move to the anode.
Why is Hydrogen gas produced at the Cathode during the electrolysis of Sodium Chloride solution? Because in solutions there are 4 ions: Sodium, Chloride, and Hydrogen and Hydroxide ions; the latter 2 come from the water
During the extraction of Aluminium, what is collected at the cathode? The cathode is the negative electrode, positive Aluminium ions are attracted to the cathode; so Aluminium metal is collected
During the extraction of Aluminium, what is collected at the anode? The anode is the positive electrode, negative oxide ions are attracted to the cathode; so Oxygen gas is collected
During the extraction of Aluminium, Describe the reaction at the Cathode The Aluminium metal ION gains electrons to become metal ATOM. Did you use "NANA gave up and burned" to help you remember? (make sure that you write the names of the particles: ION into ATOM)
During the extraction of Aluminium, Describe the reaction at the Anode The Oxide non-metal ION loses electrons to become metal ATOM. Did you use "NANA gave up and burned" to help you remember? (make sure that you write the names of the particles: ION into ATOM)
During the extraction of Aluminium, write the equation at the cathode Al^+3 + 3e- --> Al
During the extraction of Aluminium, write the equation at the anode 2 O^-2 --> O2 + 4e- (you need to first balance the number of atoms then the charges!)
During the extraction of Aluminium, why must the positive electrode, the anode be replaced regularly? Because the oxide ion is attracted to the anode, loses electrons and becomes Oxygen gas; the Oxygen then reacts with the carbon to make Carbon Dioxide: the electrode burns away!
(Chapter 14, paper 2) During purification of copper, what are the electrodes made of? The Cathode is pure copper and the Anode is impure copper
(Chapter 14, paper 2) During purification of copper, describe the reaction at the Anode Not quite NANA give up and burn... the copper ATOMS from the electrode will LOSE electrons and become copper IONS. (make sure that you write the names of the particles: ION into ATOM)
(Chapter 14, paper 2) During purification of copper, describe the reaction at the Cathode The copper IONS from the solution will collect/GAIN electrons to become copper ATOMS (make sure that you write the names of the particles: ION into ATOM)
(Chapter 14, paper 2) During purification of copper, why does the Cathode gain mass? because the copper IONS from the solution will collect/GAIN electrons to become copper ATOMS. More atoms = more mass. (make sure that you write the names of the particles: ION into ATOM)
(Chapter 14, paper 2) During purification of copper, why does the Anode lose mass? because the copper ATOMS from the electrode will LOSE electrons to become copper IONS. (Have you used the keywords?) The ions go insolution. Less atoms=less mass
(Chapter 14, paper 2) What is the sludge found under the Anode made of? Impurities from the copper anode: Silver metal
(Chapter 14, paper 2) During purification of copper, why does the concentration of copper ions in solution stay the same? Because for each ION that move to the cathode to become an ATOM, an ATOM from the anode loses an electron to become an ION (make sure that you write the names of the particles: ION into ATOM)
(Chapter 14, paper 2) During purification of copper, what happens to the copper ions that are in solution? The copper IONS move to the Cathode
(Chapter 14, paper 2) During purification of copper, why does the Anode lose MORE mass than the Cathode gains? for each ION that becomes an ATOM at the cathode, an ATOM from the anode loses an electron to become an ION; so the mass lost and gained should be the same: the difference is the impurities found in the Anode that fall at the bottom of the beaker.
Created by: ursulinechem2