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Chemistry Test 2

Chapter 3

Atomic Theory the theory that all matter is made up of tiny indivisible particles (atoms).
Law of Definite Proportions a given chemical compound always contains its component elements in fixed ratio (by mass) and does not depend on its source and method of preparation.
Law of Conservation of Mass mass is neither created nor destroyed.
Law of Multiple Proportions when two elements combine to form more than one compound, the mass of one element, which combines with a fixed mass of the other element, will always be ratios of whole numbers.
Atomic Mass It is approximately equivalent to the number of protons and neutrons in the atom (the mass number) or to the average number allowing for the relative abundances of different isotopes.
Mole the SI unit for the amount of a substance and its symbol is mol.
Avagadro's Constant 6.02214086 × 1023
Anode the positively charged electrode by which the electrons leave a device.
Cathode the negatively charged electrode by which electrons enter an electrical device.
Cathode Ray Tube
Electrons a stable subatomic particle with a charge of negative electricity, found in all atoms and acting as the primary carrier of electricity in solids.
Nucleus the positively charged central core of an atom, consisting of protons and neutrons and containing nearly all its mass.
Alpha Particles a helium nucleus emitted by some radioactive substances, originally regarded as a ray.
Proton a stable subatomic particle occurring in all atomic nuclei, with a positive electric charge equal in magnitude to that of an electron, but of opposite sign.
Neutron a subatomic particle of about the same mass as a proton but without an electric charge, present in all atomic nuclei except those of ordinary hydrogen.
Atomic Number the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom, which determines the chemical properties of an element and its place in the periodic table.
Mass Number the total number of protons and neutrons in a nucleus.
Coulomb's Law
Isotope Isotopes are variants of a particular chemical element which differ in neutron number. All isotopes of a given element have the same number of protons in each atom.
Radioisotope a radioactive isotope.
Electromagnetic Spectrum the range of wavelengths or frequencies over which electromagnetic radiation extends.
Wavelength the distance between successive crests of a wave, especially points in a sound wave or electromagnetic wave.
Frequency the rate at which a vibration occurs that constitutes a wave,
Crest A crest is a point on the wave where the displacement of the medium is at a maximum.
Trough the lowest point in a wavelength
Line Emission Spectrum The emission spectrum of a chemical element or chemical compound is the spectrum of frequencies of electromagnetic radiation emitted due to an atom or molecule making a transition from a high energy state to a lower energy state.
Ground State the lowest energy state of an atom or other particle.
Excited State any quantum state of the system that has a higher energy than the ground state
Quantum Number
Pauli-Exclusion Principal
Aufbau Principal
Electron Configuration
Hund's Rule
Created by: Kolby_Furr91301