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Exploring Matter

SNC1P Ms. McLaughlin

Physical Property Description of matter using your 5 senses. Also includes state of the matter (solid, liquid, and gas)
Matter Anything that has mass and takes up space.
Conductivity Ability of electrical current or heat to move through matter.
Density How compact a substance is, calculation of mass divided by volume.
Lustre Description of how well the surface of a substance reflects light. “Shine”
Solubility how much of a substance dissolves in another substance.
Ductility Ability of any solid that can be stretched into a long wire.
Malleability Ability of a substance to be pounded or rolled into sheets.
Texture How the surface feels (roughness, smoothness, softness . . .)
Chemical Properties Describes how a substance can CHANGE to produce NEW substances with NEW properties whe they interact with other substances
Combustibility The ability of a substance to catch fire and burn in air
Reactivity with Oxygen The change that can occur when a substance is exposed to oxygen.
Reactivity with Acid The change that can occur when a substance is exposed to acids
Precipitate When substances are mixed together and form a solid. Solid = precipitate
Decomposition Reaction The change that can occur when a substance breaks down into parts that make it up.
Pure Substance Matter containing only ONE type of particle that cannot be separated physically. There are two types Elements and Compounds.
Element A pure substance made up of ONLY one type of particle.
Compound A pure substance that is made up of two or more elements that are combined chemically and can be broken down into elements by chemical reactions.
Metals Are a type of element that are commonly solids at room temperature (except mercury which is a liquid). Are shiny (have a lustre), malleable, ductile, and good conductors.
Non-metals Are elements that can be solids, liquids, or gases at room temperature. Tend to be dull (no lustre), brittle, not ductile, and poor conductors.
Heterogeneous A type of mixture where the different parts can be seen
Homogeneous A type of mixture that looks the same throughout.
Mixture Matter that is made up of a combination of pure substances. The substances are not combined together and could be separated physically.
Mechanical Mixture A type of mixture that have parts big enough to see, and they stay mixed. For example salad, cookie dough
Suspensions A type of mixture that is a cloudy mixture where the tiny particles of one substance are held within another substance. If left along the substance will separate due to gravity. For example muddy water, salad dressing
Solutions A type of mixture that have a combination of substances Thayer are not individually visible. One substance is dissolved in the other. For example sugar dissolved in coffee,
Atom Smallest unit of an element that displays the properties of that element.
Nucleus The centre of an atom that holds protons and neutrons.
Electron Surrounds the nucleus in one or more energy level shells. A negatively charged particle.
Proton Located in the nucleus of the atoms. Has a positive charge.
Neutron Located in the nucleus of the atoms. Has NO charge (its neutral). Can be calculated using # Neutrons = Mass number - Atomic number.
Atomic Number The total number of protons in the atoms. It also represents the number of electrons in an atom.
Element Symbol Abbreviation for the element. Always starts with a capital letter. Also called Chemical symbols.
Atomic Mass The mass of the atoms.
Bohr Model Visual representation of the atom. Contains the total number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus and shows the electrons in shells surrounding the nucleus.
Valence Electrons Electrons found in the outermost (last) shell of any element.
Mass number The total number of protons and neutrons in the atom. Found by rounding the atomic mass to the nearest whole number.
Periodic table A Chart in which elements are organized horizontally by atomic number and vertically be similar properties.
Periods Horizontal rows on the periodic table. Represents the number of energy levels that contain electrons. There are 7 on the periodic table.
Group Also called family. Vertical columns on the periodic table. There are 18 on the periodic table.
Molecule A type of particle made up of two or more elements bonded together. Also called a compound.
Chemical Formula Uses both the chemical symbols representing which elements make up the molecule and numbers indicating how many of each elements make up the molecule.