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level 1 definitions for acids and bases NZ

Acid A substance that is able to donate a hydrogen ion (proton). (Tastes sour; pH less than 7)
Atom The smallest particle of an element.
Atomic number The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom.
Mass number The number of protons plus the number of neutrons in the nucleus of an atom.
Base A substance that is able to accept a hydrogen ion (proton). A basic solution contains that hydroxide ions (OH-). pH greater than 7.
Alkali A base that is soluble in water
Charge The amount of electricity on a particle – positive or negative.
Proton Positively charged subatomic particle found in the nucleus of an atom.
Neutron Neutral subatomic particle found in the nucleus of an atom.
Electron Negatively charged subatomic particles found moving rapidly around the nucleus.
Electron Arrangement (configuration) The position of the electrons in the energy level around the nucleus
Antacids Substances that are taken to relieve stomach acidity.
Metal salts Ionic compounds except oxides or hydroxides.
Element A substance which is composed of only one type of atom.
Compound A substance which is composed of two or more different types of atoms chemically bonded.
Isotopes Atoms with the same number of protons but different numbers of Neutrons (ie same atomic number but different mass numbers).
Particles Atoms, molecules or ions.
Ion Atoms or groups of atoms which have lost or gained electrons to become a charged particle.
Ionic bonding Strong electrostatic attraction between positive and negative ions to form a large 3D network.
Ionic compound Substance composed of oppositely charged ions (metal with non-metal)
Formula Symbol representation of the atoms present in a substance.
Symbol Equation Symbol representation of the reactants and products of a chemical reaction.
Word Equation Word representation of a chemical equation.
Metal oxide Ionic substance consisting of a metal and oxygen. (eg MgO)
Metal hydroxide Ionic substance consisting of a metal and hydroxide ions. (eg NaOH)
Metal carbonate Ionic substance consisting of a metal and carbonate ions (eg CaCO3 )
Metal bicarbonate Ionic substance consisting of a metal and a hydrogen carbonate ion. ( eg NaHCO3 ).
Indicator Substance that changes colour in the presence of acid or base.
Litmus A type of indicator Red litmus- acid → red Red litmus – base →blue Blue litmus- acid →red Blue litmus – base →blue.
Universal indicator Mixture of indicators that change colour at different pH’s. pH 1→→→→→7→→→→→14 Red Green Blue
pH A number that represents the concentration of the hydrogen ions in a solution.
pH scale A scale formed from the pH of different solutions.
Neutral Having a pH of 7, ie neither acidic nor basic.
Neutralisation Making an acidic solution less acidic or a basic solution less basic.
Monoatomic ions Ions with only one atom. eg Cl-
Reaction rates The speed at which a chemical reaction occurs.
Created by: simkar
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