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chem U8

Gas Laws

Boyle's Law the pressure and volume of a gas are inversely proportional when the temperature and number of moles remain constant
equation for boyle's law P1V1=P2V2
charles's law the volume and temperature of a gas are directly proportional when the pressure and number of moles remain constant
equation for charles's law V1/T1=V2/T2
Dalton's Law of partial pressures Ptotal=P1+P2+P3...
partial pressure the pressure of a single gas in a mixture as if that gas alone occupied the container
how to find partial pressure (moles/total moles) x (Ptotal)
Gay Lussac's Law the pressure of a gas is directly proportional to the temperature when volume and # of moles remain constant.
equation for Gay Lussac's law P1/T1=P2/T2
what units of temperature do you ALWAYS use for these equations? KELVIN! K=C+273. because of absolute zero
the combined gas law combines which laws? boyle's charles's, and gay lussac's law
equation for the combined gas law (P1V1)/T1=(P2V2)/T2
what are the cons of all the other individual's laws? there were only 2 variables that were allowed to change, and the other 2 were held constant (unrealistic)
what is the advantage of the combined gas law? allows all 3 variables to change. the only constant is the amount of gas
what is the purpose of the ideal gas law allows you to calculate the amt of gas at any specified conditions
equation for the ideal gas law PV=nRT
what does the variable P stand for? P=pressure (atm)
what does the variable V stand for? V=volume (L)
what does the variable n stand for? moles
what does the variable R stand for? ideal gas constant (for atm, it's) 0.0821
what does the variable T stand for? temperature (K)
Ideal gas a gas molecule that has no volume and no attractive forces
real gas a gas molecule that has volume and attractive forces; occurs at very low temperatures and high pressure
characteristics of real gases they convert into a liquid instead of compressing to 0 volume; van der Waals forces become significant due to the close proximity of the atoms
Diffusion The spontaneous spreading of particles throughout a given volume until they are uniformly distributed (perfume)
effusion The mvmt of gas through a small opening
grahm's law equation (unimportant for the unit test) v1/v2=√m2/√m1
grahm's law says that...? small gases move faster than larger gases (molar mass)
Created by: allyson.lee