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chemistry review

chemistry review portion of chem and physics for anesthesia

Nitrous oxide N2O
Nitric oxide NO
compounds compromised of more than one kind (2 or more) of atom in a fixed ratio by mass
Ionic compound compounds held together by ionic bonds or the attraction of oppositely charged ions. Not a discrete molecule...crystalline lattices
cation positively charged ions, electron deficiency
Which side of the table tends to form cations? Left side
What kind of element typically forms cations? metals
Define Anion negatively charged ions
what side of the periodic table tends to form anions? R. side
What kind of element typically forms anions Non metals
molecule definition groups of atoms chemically bonded into a discrete unit. electrically neutral and stable by itself.
Atomic Number Z, number of protons in nucleus
Mass number A, Sum of protons and neutrons, average mass of 1 mole of an element.
Isotopes Same atomic number (Z) but different mass number (A). Same # protons different number of neutrons.
Law of conservation of mass no detectable change in the total mass occurs during a chemical reaction
law of definite proportions different samples of a pure compound always contain the same elements in the same proportion by mass.
Daltons theory #1 Each element is made of indivisible atoms that are identical to each other but different from atoms of other elements
Daltons theory #2 Chemical combination is the bonding of a definite small whole number of atoms to make one molecule of the formed compound. the compound always has the same # and types of atoms.
Daltons theory #3 No atoms are gained, lost, or changed in identity during a chemical reaction. They are just rearranged to make a new substance.
What is a row on the periodic table of elements called? Period
What is a column on the pte called Group or family
Properties of metals shiny, lustrous, malleable, ductile, electrical and thermal conductor, L side of PTE.
Properties of non metals Variable look, brittle if it can be in a solid state, non-conductor except graphite, R side of table.
Properties of Metalloids or semi metals Shiny, lustrous, variable textures, poor conductors but they can conduct electricity, Located on stair step of PTE.
Representative elements All columns with an "A" in them. 1a, 2a, 3a, 4a, 5a, 6a, 7a, 8a
transitional elements B columns, 3b,4b, 5b, 6b, 7b, 8b, 1b, 2b
Intertransitional elements rows on bottom of PTE.
Top row of intertransitional elements on PTE Lanthanides or rare earths
Bottom row of intertransitional elements on PTE Actinides
What is a physical change Chemical bonds do not get broken, form is changed, ex. ice to water
what is a homogenous mixture evenly distributed mixture
Chromate ion CrO4 2-
dichromate ion Cr2O7 2-
oxalate ion C2O4 2-
acetate ion C2H4O2 -
acetate ion CH3CO2 -
CO3 2- Carbonate ion
HCO3 - bicarbonate ion or hydrogen carbonate
CN - Cyanide ion
NH4 + Ammonium ion
Permanganate ion MnO4 -
NO2 - Nitrite ion
NO3 - Nitrate ion
OH - hydroxide ion
Perchlorate ion ClO4 -
ClO3 - Chlorate ion
ClO2 - Chlorite ion
ClO - hypochlorite ion
O2 2- peroxide ion
dihydrogen phosphate ion H2PO4 -
HPO4 2- biphosphate ion or hydrogen phosphate ion
phosphate ion PO4 3-
thiosulfate ion S2O3 2-
HSO4 - hydrogen sulfate ion or bisulfate ion
HSO3 - hydrogen sulfite ion or bisulfite
Sulfate SO4 2-
Sulfite ion SO3 2-
What is a heterogeneous mixture definite ability to tell what is in it. vomit, sand and water, soup
What is a covalent bond sharing of electrons in a molecule, close together on periodic table.
C3H8 propane
C2H6 dicarbonhexahydride or Ethane
NH3 Nitrogen trihydride or ammonia
CH4 carbon tetrahydride or methane
H2O dihydrogen oxide or water
What is a desiccant? absorbs moisture, easily reversible reactions, easy to add and remove water
What is a hydrate? an ionic compound that incorporates a fixed number of H2O molecules into a formal unit. CuSO4.5H2O+copper (II) sulphate pentahydrate
oxide O 2-
what is an element? Made of a single kind of atom. defined by number of protons
what is an atom building blocks of matter, smallest particle of an element that can enter into a chemical reaction.
what are the steps to naming molecular compounds? name each element, indicate how much of each element is present with a prefix, mono di tri tetra penta hexa, then add ide to last element
What are the steps to naming ionic compounds? name elements, do not add mono di, tri, etc. must be electrically neutral.
how do you name transitional metal cations? more than one cation: name metal and give charge in romans numerals. Fe 3= Iron (III) ion. One cation: add cation to name of element Na- =sodium cation. Most form more than one cation. groups 3-12 on table in class.
how do you name representative cations? ionic charge =group # add cation to end.
Naming monatomic anions of representative nonmetals groups 5a, 6a, 7a, subtract 8 from group number.
Created by: rlfarmer2