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Reactions in Aqueous

Basic Terminology

Ionic held together by ionic (+/-) attraction
Molecular held together by IMF’s ( intermolecular forces)
Disassociation separation of ions that occurs when an ionic compound dissolves
"Strong" Electrolytes The solution will contain only ions and no molecules of the electrolyte. Strong electrolytes are good conductors of electricity, but only in aqueous solutions or in molten form. Strength of electrolyte=amount of voltage produced. Ex: Salt Water
"Weak" Electrolytes ...does not completely dissociate in aqueous solution. The solution will contain both ions and molecules of the electrolyte. Weak electrolytes only partially ionize in water (usually 1% to 10%). Conduct only a very small electrical current.
Examples of Strong Electrolytes Strong acids, strong bases, and salts. These chemicals completely dissociate into ions in aqueous solution.
Examples of Weak Electrolytes Weak acids, weak bases, and a variety of other compounds. Most compounds that contain nitrogen are weak electrolytes.
Examples of Nonelectrolytes Most carbon compounds, such as sugars, fats, and alcohols. (Do not break into ions in water)
Solute substance that is in lesser quantity and gets dissolved
Solvent substance that is in greater quantity and does the dissolving
Concentrations amount of solute dissolved in a given amount of solution
Molarity Molarity is the concentration of a solution expressed as the number of moles of solute per litre of solution. To convert moles to molarity divide by the total volume, in liters, of solution used in the reaction.
Percentage by weight – a percentage that describes either how much solute or solvent is present in a solution
Grams of Solution Formula Grams of Solution = Grams Solvent + Grams Solute
Formula for percent of solute % solute = grams solute ----------- ----------------- 100 total grams
Formula for percent of solvent % solvent = grams solvent OR (100 - % solute) = grams solvent ------------ ------------------- -------------------- ------------------ 100 total grams 100 total grams
Molal Concentration (Molality) A measure of the concentration of a solute in a solution; amount of substance in a specified amount of mass of the solvent. Commonly used unit for molality in chemistry is mol/kg. A solution of concentration 1 mol/kg is also sometimes denoted as 1 molal.
Spectator Ions – ions that do not take part in a chemical reaction and are found in solution (aqueous) both before and after
Created by: SG Luther



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