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Stats Vocab

Population The group of individuals that we hope to learn about
Sample A part of the population that we examine in hope to learn about the population
Sample survey Questions that are given to a sample in hope of learning something about the entire population. EX: Polls
4 types of Bias 1) Relying on Voluntary response 2)undercoverage of the population 3) nonresponse bias 4) response bias
Randomization The best defense against bias. Each individual is given a fair, random chance of being select
Matching Force a sample to resemble specific attribute
Sample size # of individual in a sample.
Census A sample that consist of the entire population
Population parameter EX: the mean income of all employed people in the country
Statistic, sample statistic values calculated for sampled data
Representative a sample is representative if the statistics computed from it accurately reflect the corresponding population parameters
Simple random sample each set of (n) elements in the population has an equal chance of being selected
Sampling frame Lists of individuals from the sample
Stratified random sample population is divided into several strata, and random samples are drawn from each stratum.
Cluster sample entire groups or clusters are chosen at random
Systematic sample selecting individuals systematically from a sampling frame
Multistage sample sampling schemes that combine several sampling methods
Voluntary response bias individuals can choose on their own whether to participate in the sample. Sample base on voluntary response is always invalid.
Convenience sample individuals who are conveniently available. Not representative because every individual is not equally convenient to sample
Nonresponse bias large fraction of those sampled fail to respond. Those who do response are likely not to represent the entire sample
Response bias The people tell lies because you asked a sensitive question. EX: Do you do drugs?
Sampling variability tendency of randomly drawn samples to differ, one from another.
interviewer bias the person you having conducting the interview makes the person hesitant to answer the questions
Reporting Bias the individual tends to round when answering
Created by: Tiffastic