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Organic Compounds

Basic organic compounds containing oxygen and nitrogen.

What is an alcohol? An organic compound that contains the hydroxyl group (-OH).
What do ethers contain? Two alkyl groups bonded to an oxygen atom. They have no O-H hydrogens, so they can't hydrogen bond with themselves.
What is the carbonyl group? A carbon double-bonded to an oxygen.
What do ketones contain? Two alkyl groups bonded to the carbonyl group.
What do aldehydes contain? One alkyl group and a hydrogen atom bonded to the carbonyl group.
What is a main difference between nomenclature of aldehydes and ketones? Ketones generally have the -one suffix, and aldehydes have either the -al or the -aldehyde suffix.
What do carboxylic acids contain? The carboxyl group, or -COOH.
What is the carboxyl group composed of? A carbonyl group and a hydroxyl group.
What is the systematic naming convention for carboxylic acids? The "-oic acid" suffix.
What are the carboxylic acid derivatives? Acid chlorides, esters and amides.
What is an acid chloride? A carboxylic acid derivative where Cl is in place of the hydroxyl group bonded to the carbonyl group.
What is an ester? A carboxylic acid derivative where an alkyl group replaces the acid proton in the hydroxyl group.
What is an amine? An alkylated derivative of ammonia.
What is an amide? A carboxylic acid derivative that has ammonia or an amine in place of the hydroxyl group.
Describe how hydrogen bonding can occur with amides. One of the hydrogens from the highly polarized N-H bond will bond with the carbonyl oxygen that carries a partial negative charge as a result of resonance polarization.
What does a nitrile contain? The cyano group, or -C(triblebond)N.
What are the two types of isomers? Constitutional isomers and stereoisomers.
What is another name for constitutional isomers? Structural isomers.
What is the difference between constitutional and stereoisomers? Constitutional isomers have atoms connected to different atoms, and stereoisomers are connected to the same atoms, just oriented differently in space.
Created by: Cristobal16