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Physical Science

Physical science terms taken from

alchemist a medieval version of the modern chemist; a practitioner who blended primitive chemistry with magic, seeking to turn ordinary metals into gold
allotropes different structural forms of the same element; for example, some carbon molecules form soft graphite, where as others form hard diamond
alloy a mixture consisting of a metal and one or more elements
amorphous something that has no specific shape; for example, a liquid or gas
anhydrous a chemical compound that normally has water molecules attached to its ions but from which the water has been removed
Archimedes' principle the Greek mathematician Archimedes stated that the buoyant force on an object in a fluid is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the object
atomic number the number of protons in an atom's nucleus
average atomic mass the average mass of an element is the average mass of the mixture of its isotopes
balanced chemical equation a chemical equation that has the same number of atoms of each element on both sides of the equation
base a substance that produces hydroxide ions (OH-) in solution; basic solutions have a pH over 7
Bernoulli's principle Swiss scientist Daniel Bernoulli stated that as the velocity of a fluid increases, the pressure exerted by the fluid decreases (how airplanes fly)
binary compound a chemical compound composed of two elements; for example, sodium chloride (salt)
Boyle's Law British scientist Robert Boyle stated that the volume of a gas decreases when the pressure increases, provided the temperature stays the same (P: ^, T: -, V: v)
buoyant force ability of a fluid to exert an upward force on an object immersed in the fluid
Charles's Law French scientist Jacques Charles stated that the volume of a gas increases when temperature increases, provided pressure remains the same (P: -, V: ^, T: ^)
chemical bond the force that holds together the atoms in a compound; chemical bonding occurs because atoms of most elements become more stable by losing, gaining, and sharing electrons
chemical change the change of substances to different substances
chemical formula a precise statement that tells which elements are in a compound and their ratios
chemical property a characteristic of a substance that indicates whether it can undergo a specific chemical change
chemical reaction a change in which one or more substances are converted to differnet substances (the reactants are changed into the products)
chemical symbol a shorthand way to write the name of an element; for example: C for carbon, Ag for silver
chemically stable describes an atom whose outermost energy level is completely filled with electrons, thus rarely combines naturally with other elements
chemically unstable describes an atom whose outermost energy level is not filled with electrons so it seeks electrons from other atoms and thus forms compounds; for example: sodium, chlorine (salt)
coagulation process that destroys colloid structure; can be used to reduce a colloidal form of air pollution
colloid a heterogenus mixture containing tiny particles that never settle out; for example: milk, gelatin, smog
compound substance made of the combined atoms of two or more elements
concentrated solution a solution in which the amount of solute is near the maximumthe solvent can hold at that temperature
concentration generally, the proportion of a solute dissolved in a solvent
condensation the change of a substance from a gas to a liquid, which usually takes place when a gas is cooled to or below its boiling point
condense to go from the gas state to the liquid state, due to a loss of heat
Created by: moodystu