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Chemistry Test 1

Chapters 1 & 2

Physical property observed with the senses
Physical change a change in size, shape, or state;no new substance
Chemical property indicates how a substance will react with something else; matter will be changed into new substance
Chemical change a change in the chemical and physical properties; new substance is formed
Kelvin= Celsius + 273
Celsius= Kelvin - 273
exothermic releases heat
endothermic process absorbs heat and cools the surroundings
chemical reaction a process that involves rearrangement of the molecular or ionic structure of a substance, as opposed to a change in physical form
product The substances that result from this recombination of atoms
reactant written on the left side, in a similar manner to a math equation
density Density is the mass of a substance per unit volume.
mass Mass is a measure of the amount of matter in a substance or an object.
matter Matter is all the “stuff” that exists in the universe.
quantity the amount or number of a material or immaterial thing not usually estimated by spatial measurement.
volume the amount of space that a substance or object occupies, or that is enclosed within a container, especially when great.
weight the name of the force exerted on an object due to the acceleration of gravity.
allotrope each of two or more different physical forms in which an element can exist. Graphite, charcoal, and diamond are all allotropes of carbon.
atom the smallest component of an element, characterized by a sharing of the chemical properties of the element and a nucleus with neutrons, protons and electrons.
element a substance whose atoms all have the same number of protons
molecule a complete chemical unit
acid A substance that produces H+(aq) ions in aqueous solution. Strong acids ionize completely or almost completely in dilute aqueous solution. Weak acids ionize only slightly.
base A substance that produces OH (aq) ions in aqueous solution. Strong soluable bases are soluble in water and are completely dissociated. Weak bases ionize only slightly.
compound A substance of two or more elements in fixed proportions. Compounds can be decomposed into their constituent elements.
mixture A sample of matter composed of two or more substances, each of which retains its identity and properties
ion An atom or a group of atoms that carries an electric charge.
inorganic compound any compound that does not both carbon and hydrogen together
organic compound any compound that contains both carbon and hydrogen together
pH a figure expressing the acidity or alkalinity of a solution on a logarithmic scale on which 7 is neutral, lower values are more acid, and higher values more alkaline.
chemical bond The attractive forces that hold atoms together in elements or compounds.
energy The capacity to do work or transfer heat.
heat the sum of the total of kinetic energy of the particles in a sample of the matter
kinetic energy energy a moving object has because it is in motion
potential energy energy an object has because of its location
specific heat the amount of heat energy required to raise the temperature of 1g of a substance by 1 kelvin
system an integrated whole, composed of diverse, interacting, specialized structures and subfunctions.
temperature A measure of the intensity of heat
hypothesis a testable question/problem
theory a supposition or a system of ideas intended to explain something, especially one based on general principles independent of the thing to be explained.
scientific law statement based on repeated experimental observations that describes some aspect of the universe.
accuracy How closely a measured value agrees with the correct value.
precision how close multiple results are to each other
solid definite shape/volume - molecules tightly packed - vibrate in place
liquid definite volume; variable shape - moderately packed - flow over each other
gases indefinite shape/volume - spread far apart - rapid random motion
reactants to the left of the arrow
products to the right of the equation
KHDBDCM kilo, hecto, deka, base, deci, centi, milli
density = mass/volume
heterogeneous mixture can be separated from one another.
homogeneous mixture a solid, liquid or gaseous mixture that has the same proportions of its components throughout a given sample
activation energy the amount of energy needed to make an object begin movement
law of conservation of energy energy can neither be created nor destroyed
% of error= theoretical-experimental / theoretical X 100
Created by: Kolby_Furr91301