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Stats Ch 10

Observational Study A study based on data in which no manipulation of factors has been employed.
Retrospective Study A type of observational study in which subjects are selected and then their previous conditions are determined.
Prospective Study A type of observational study in which subjects are followed to observe future outcomes.
Experiment A study that manipulates factor levels to create treatments, randomly assigns subjects to these treatment levels, and then compares the responses of the subject groups across the treatment levels.
Random Assignment Experimental units are randomly assigned to treatment groups.
Factor Levels are manipulated by the experimenter in an attempt to discover any effects it may have on the response variable.
Response The value of a variable is compared across different treatments.
Experimental Units Individuals on whom the experiment is performed (known as subjects or participants if human)
Level The specific value that the experimenter chooses for a factor.
Treatment The process/levels of factor applied to randomly assigned experimental units.
Statistically Significant When an observed difference is too large for us to believe that it is likely to have occurred by chance.
Control Group The experimental units assigned to baseline treatment level, or a placebo treatments and whose responses are the basis of comparison.
Blind Any individual associated with an experiment who is not aware of how subjects have been allocated to treatment group.
Single-Blind When either those who can influence the results or those who evaluate the results are not aware of how subjects have been allocated to the treatment group.
Double-Blind When both those who can influence the results and those who evaluate the results are not aware of how subjects have been allocated to the treatment group.
Placebo A treatment known to have no effect, administered so that all groups experience the same conditions.
Placebo Effect The tendency that human subjects show a response even when administered a fake treatment.
Completely Randomized Design All experimental units have an equal chance of receiving any treatment.
Blocking Placing experimental units into groups based on pre-existing differences to isolate the differences to see the effects of the treatments more clearly.
Randomized Block Design Subject are randomly assigned to treatments only within groups based on pre-existing differences.
Matching In a retrospective or prospective study or experiment, subjects who are similar in ways not under study may be grouped and compared with each other on the variables of interest.
Confounding Types of factors when the levels of one factor are associated with the levels of another factor in such a way that their effects cannot be separated.
Principles of Experimental Design Control aspects we can, randomize to make up for aspects we can't, and replicate as many times as possible.
Created by: HowardGeometry