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Stats Ch 9

Population The entire group of individuals or instances about whom we hope to learn.
Sample A representative subset of the population.
Sample Survey A study that asks questions of a sample drawn from some population in the hope of learning something about the entire population.
Bias Any systematic failure of a sampling method to represent the population.
Randomization The best defense against bias where each individual is given a fair, random chance of selection.
Sample Size The number of individuals in a sample.
Census A sample that consists of the entire population.
Population Parameter A numerical attribute of a model for a population.
Sample Statistic Numerical summary calculated from sample data.
Representative A sample where the statistics computed accurately reflect the corresponding population parameters.
Simple Random Sample A sample in which every person has an equal probability of being selected as part of the sample.
Sampling Frame A list of individuals from whom the sample is drawn.
Sampling Variability The natural tendency of randomly drawn samples to differ from one another.
Stratified Random Sample A sample in which the population is divided into several subgroups that share a common characteristic, then a random sample is taken on each subgroup.
Cluster Sample A sample in which entire groups are selected at random, then a census is administered on that subgroup.
Multistage Sample A sample that combines several sampling techniques.
Systematic Sample A sample in which individuals are drawn from the population according to some nonrandom algorithm.
Pilot Study A small trial run of a survey to check whether the questions are clear and unbiased.
Voluntary Response Bias Bias introduced when individuals decide on their own that they want to be part of a sample.
Convenience Sample A sample consisting of individuals who are readily available.
Undercoverage Bias introduced when a portion of the population has less representation in the sample than the population.
Nonresponse Bias Bias introduced when a large portion of the sample simply do not participate.
Response Bias Bias created when anything in a survey design influences responses.
Created by: HowardGeometry