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Periodic Table

TermDefinition
Atomic Number The number of protons in the nucleus. Protons = Electrons
Electron Negatively charged subatomic particle. Found outside of the nucleus. 1/2000 the mass of a proton or neutron.
Proton Positively charged subatomic particle found in the nucleus.
Neutron Subatomic particle with no charge found in the nucleus
Period Horizontal row of the elements. It also stands for the number of electron shells around the element. Example Carbon is in period 2 so it has 2 electron shells.
Group/ Family Vertical column of elements with similar but not identical properties. Same number of valence electrons.
Valence Electrons Electrons in the outer shell. This is where covalent bonds are formed between non-metals.
Atomic mass Average mass of protons and neutrons in the nucleus. To find the average number of neutrons in an element subtract the atomic number from the atomic mass.
Atomic Mass Unit (AMU) Unit used to measure subatomic particles. Protons and neutrons have a mass of 1 amu.
Alkali Metals This family has 1 valence electron.
Mercury This element is liquid at room temperature and found in the transition metals.
Nitrogen This family has 5 valence electrons
Halogen This family is made up of extremely reactive non metals.
Thorium This element has 90 electrons.
Noble Gases This family is unreactive and inert.
Boron This family has 3 valence electrons.
Transition Metals This family's electrons can jump between electron shells and usually has 1 or 2 valence electrons.
Subscript Number in the lower right hand corner that represents the number of atoms of an element in a compound.
Carbon This element has its own branch of science called organic chemistry. It is the building block of life.
Krypton This element has 8 valence electrons
Strontium This element has 5 electron shells.
Selenium This element has 45 neutrons.
Molecule Combinations of atoms formed by a covalent bond. This is a bond between two non-metal elements.
Chemical Symbol Shorthand way to represent an element
Subatomic Particles Proton, neutron, and electron
Metals These are on the left side of the zigzag on the periodic table
Non-metals These are on the right side of the zigzag on the periodic table
Magnesium This element has an atomic number of 12
Copper This element has an atomic mass of 64.
Gold Symbol Au stands for what element?
Energy Level Location of electrons in the electron cloud.
Compounds Anything made up of two or more elements (must be different elements). Both metals and non-metals make compounds.
Octet Rule Rule of thumb that elements tend to bond so each atom has 8 valence electrons in their outer shell.
Coefficient Number placed in front of the symbol or a formula in a chemical equation that indicates how many atoms or molecules of this substance are involved in the reaction.
Alkaline Metals This family loses both of its valence electrons when it bonds.
Oxygen Makes up 21% of the air in the atmosphere.
Mass Number The sum of protons and neutrons in the nucleus. This is the exact number for as isotope.
Hydrogen This element has three different isotopes that we talked about.
Black Color used to represent a carbon atom in a molecule.
Red Color used to represent an oxygen atom in a molecule.
Blue Color used to represent a nitrogen atom in a molecule.
White Color used to represent a hydrogen atom in a molecule.
Covalent Bond Bond formed between two non-metals.
Sodium This element is in period 3.
Created by: tthomps