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Chemistry for the Citizen

Combustion of which fossil fuel is directly responsible for the formation of nitrogen oxide, NOx, gases? Petroleum
Which of the following is a characteristic of bases? A) Reactivity with metals B) Sour taste C) Slipperiness D) Changing color of blue litmus slipperiness
A change in pH form 3.0 to 5.0 represents a 100-fold decrease in acidity
Which of the following indicated a base solution? a. pH=0 b. pH <7 c. pH =7 d. pH>7 pH>7
H3O+ is called Hydronium Ion
Ca(OH)2 is a base
Which of the following pollutants does not contribute to acid rain? a) SO2 b) NO2 c)CO2 d)O3 O3 (ozone)
Which of the following substances will produce an acid when dissolved in water? a. MgO b. O3 c. NO d. NaOH NO
Why does acid rain affect substances that are composed of calcium carbonate, CaCO3, such as limestone, marble, chalk, and shells found in a variety of marine life? Acid rain... converts CaCO3 into H2O and CO2
Which of the following is a result of acid rain? a. depletion of the ozone layer b. global warming c. increase in greenhouse gases (GHGs) d. depletion of plant life depletion of plant life
What pH range is commonly associated with acid rain? a. >7.6 b. 6.6-7.6 c. 5.6-6.6 d. <5.6 <5.6
Which of the following is not a component of acid rain? a. nitric acid, HNO3 b. Hydrochloric acid, HCI c. sulfuric acid, H2SO4 d. carbonic acid, H2CO3 Hydrochloric acid, HCI
What are the main gases responsible for acid rain? SO2 and NO2
Which of the following correctly relates pH to [H3O+] a. pH= log[H30+] b. pH =14-[H3O+] c. pH=-log[H3O+] d. =Kw-[H3O+] pH=-log[H3O+]
Which of the following statements is true? a. all rain is acid rain b. all rain is acidic c. "normal" rain can be either acidic or basic d. "normal" rain is neither acidic nor basic All rain is acidic
Which of the following lifeforms are least affected by acid rain? a. aquatic b. terrestrial c. botanical d. all of the following are equally affected by acid rain all of the following are equally affected by acid rain
All of the following nonmetal oxides form acids when combined with water. Which is the smallest contributor to acid rain? a. NO2 b. SO3 c. N2O d. CO2 CO2
Which of the following substances could reduce the effects of acid rain? a. CaCO3 b. NaCI c. H2SO4 d. HNO3 CaCO3
Burning fossil fuels can contribute to acid rain, greenhouse effect and air pollution
What happens to the pH of an acidic solution as it is diluted? it increases
if the average temperature on the Earth's surface fell by 60 we might conclude that... greenhouse gases had been depleted to a critically low level
consider an unknown element, X, which forms an oxide that, when dissolved in water, produces a basic solution. Which of the elements is most likely X? a. N b. S c. C d. K K (potassium)
Which of the following can produce acid rain? a. greenhouse effect b. depletion of the ozone layer c. volcanic activity d. clear-cutting forests volcanic activity
which of the following is not caused by the burning of fossil fuels? a. acid rain b. greenhouse effect c. climate change d. depletion of the ozone layer depletion of the ozone layer
why is the damage caused by acid rain to structures made of limestone or marble irreversible? the materials literally vanish into thin air since acid rain converts them to H2O and CO2
Which one of the following statements about normal rain is correct? a. its pH is neutral b. its pH is mildly acidic c. its pH is mildly basic d. its pH has a broad range its pH is mildly acidic
Solubilization by acid rain of which one of the following ions results in stunted plant growth? a. Ca2+ b. K+ c. Al3+ d. Mg2+ Al3+
If NH4+ is converted to NH3 in a chemical reaction, we can conclude that NH4+ is (an) acid
Which of the combinations of names and formulas of the following acids is incorrect? a. HNO3, nitric acid b. HCI, chloric acid c. H2SO4, sulfuric acid d. H2CO3, carbonic acid HCI, chloric acid
Alkaline solutions are basic
Which solution has the highest [H3)+]? a. pH=3 b. pH=5 c. pH=9 d. pH=1 pH=3
What is the chemical form of calcium as used in the previous question? (question 38) Ca2+
What substance acts as the base in the following reaction: NH3 + HCI --> NH4CI NH3
If HC2H3O2 produces C2H3O2- when dissolved in water, we can infer that HC2H3O2 is a(n) acid
Which of the fossil fuels is, upon combustion, primarily responsible for the emission of SO2? a. petroleum b. natural gas c. coal d. all of the above are equally responsible for the emission of SO2 coal
What substance acts as the acid in the following reaction: HPOv4^2- + H2PO4- --> H2PO4- + HPOv4^2- H2PO4-
What substance acts as the acid in the following reaction? NH3 + CH3͞ ---> NH2͞ + CH4 NH3
To which of the following classes could CF2Cl2 belong? A. CFCs B. HCFCs C. Halons D. Halogens CFCs
In which layer of the atmosphere does the depletion of ozone have the most deleterious effect on diseases like skin cancer? Stratosphere
at group level, ozone is a harmful pollutant
Which of the following phenomena is not affected by the depletion of stratospheric ozone? A. Skin cancer B. Sunburns C. UV radiation on Earth’s surface D. Global warming global warming
Major anthropogenic causes(s) of ozone depletion is/are A. Fossil fuel consumption B. Electricity production C. Refrigeration use D. All human industrial activities contribute to depletion of the ozone layer refrigeration use
Water is formed form the reaction of an acid and a base. Why is it not classified as a salt? A salt is an ionic compound, whereas water is a covalent compound
Which of the following compounds could never act as an acid? COv3^2-, SOv4^2-, POv4^3-
Why do we use the pH scale to indicate the acidity of a solution rather than simply stating the concentration of hydronium ions? It is more convenient, since the concentration of hydronium ions is so small.
Carbon dioxide reacts with water to form H2CO3, carbonic acid
How is ozone produced in the upper atmosphere? It forms by reaction of oxygen molecules with UV light.
Why do the natural reactions involving ozone not lead to depletion of the ozone layer? a. UV radiation generates more ozone. b. Ozone breaks into fragments that can reassemble into more ozone.
Which of the following statements about ozone are true? a.Ozone in the troposphere is a type of smog. b.Ozone in the stratosphere is beneficial. c.Ozone is generated from photochemical reactions of hydrocarbons. d.Ozone is a diatomic molecule. Ozone in the stratosphere is beneficial.
What role do CFCs play in the destruction of ozone? CFC molecules migrate to the upper stratosphere where they generate chlorine atoms upon being destroyed by ultraviolet light
Which of the following quantities cannot be determined from an atomic number? a.The number of neutrons b.The number of electrons c.The number of protons the number of neutrons
Which of the following contains a covalent bond? a.Mg3N2 b.NO3 c.Li2O d.CaI2 NO3
In metallic bonding... some electrons are shared by all the atoms in the material
The bonding in the molecular form of oxygen is... covalent
Which of the following species has the same total number of valence electrons as CO? a.N2¯ b.N2+ c.CN+ d.CN¯ CN-
A strontium atom differs from a strontium ion in that the atom has a greater number of electrons
Which of the following is not a characteristic of metals? a.malleable b.conducts electricity c.shiny d.easily shattered easily shattered
Which of the following nonrenewable energy sources is not a fossil fuel a.Nuclear energy b.Natural gas c.Oil d.Coal e.None of the above; all of the choices are examples of fossil fuels Nuclear energy
Which of the following is NOT an ion? a.H+ b.O2 c.Mg2+ d.NO2 e.Br− f.NO−3 O2, NO2
Distinguish between a metal and a metal-containing compound. Only one of these contains ionic bonds
Created by: rgb528