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Chem 133 Chap 2

Acid a substance that yields hydrogen ions (H+) when dissolved in water.
Alkali Metals Group 1A - Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs and Fr
Alkaline earth metals Group 2A - Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba and Ra
Allotrope one of the 2 or more distinct forms of an element - ex O2 and O3 are allotropes of Oxygen
Alpha Particles positively charged particles
Alpha Rays rays composed of alpha particles
Anion an ion whose net charge is negative - Chloride ion (Cl-)
Atom the basic unit of an element that can enter into a chemical combination
Atomic Number (Z) the number of protons in the nucleus of each atom of an element. Oxygen's atomic number is 8.
Base a substance that yields hydroxide ions (OH-) when dissolved in water.
Beta Particles electrons
Beta Rays rays composed of electrons
Binary Compound compounds formed from just 2 elements - the 1st element is the metal cation and the 2nd element is the non-metal anion. (NaCl)
Cation an ion with a positive net charge (Na+ is sodium cation)
Chemical Formula express the composition of molecules and ionic compounds in terms of chemical symbols
Diatomic Molecule contains only 2 atoms, they can be of the same or different elements. H, N, O F, Cl, Br and I exist naturally as diatomic molecules. CO, HCl are ex.of diatomic mol. of different elements
Electron negatively charged particles
Empirical Formula tells us which elements are present and the simplest whole number ratio of their atoms - not nec. the actual
Families vertical columns of the Periodic Table
Gamma Rays rays made up of neutral particles.
Groups Same as families- vertical columns of the Periodic Table
Halogens Group 7A - F, Cl, Br, I and At
Hydrate compounds that have a specific number of H2O molecules attached to them.
Inorganic Compounds compound that generally does not contain Carbon - ionic compounds, acids, bases and hydrates
Ion an atom or group of atoms that has a net positive or negative charge
Ionic Compound compound formed by cations and anions
Isotope atoms that have the same atomic numbers but different mass numbers (have the same protons but different neutrons)
Law of conservation of mass matter is neither created nor destroyed
Law of definite proportions different samples of the same compound always contain its constituent in the same proportion by mass. ex - CO2 from different places would always have the same ratio of C to O
Law of multiple proportions if 2 elements can combine to form more than 1 compound, the masses of one element that combine with a fixed mass of the other element are in ratios of small whole numbers. ex. CO and CO2
Mass Number (A) the total number of protons and neutrons present in the nucleus of an atom
Metal is a good conductor of heat and electricity
Metalloid had properties that are intermediate between those of metals and non-metals
Molecular Formula shows the exact number of atoms of each element in the smallest unit of a substance H2O
Molecule an aggregate of at least 2 atoms in a definite arrangement held together by chemical forces (bonds)
Monatomic Ion Ions that contain only 1 atom
Neutron neutral particle
Noble Gases Group 8A - non-reactive gases- He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe and Rn - only elements that exist in nature as single atoms
Nonmetal poor conductor of heat and electricity
Nucleus dense central core of an atom
Organic Compound contain Carbon
Oxoacid acids that contain hydrogen, oxygen and another (central) element. Written with H first then central element then O - ex. HNO3 - nitric acid
oxoanion anions of oxoacids
Periods Horizontal Row of the Periodic Table
Periodic Table chart in which elements having similar chemical and physical properties are grouped together
Polyatomic ion ions containing more than 1 atom (OH-) - hydroxide Ion
Polyatomic molecule molecule containing more than 2 atoms
Proton positively charged particle
Radiation the emission and transmission of energy through space in the form of waves.
Radioactivity spontaneous emission of particles and
or radiation
Structural Formula shows how atoms are bonded to one another in a molecule - H2O would be shown as H-O-H
Ternary formula compounds consisting of 3 elements
Anhydrous the hydrate no longer has H2O attached to it.
Created by: melwandelt