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# Topic 2 - Physics

TermDefinition
Displacement vector quantity that refers to the object's overall change in position
Velocity a physical vector quantity; both magnitude and direction are needed to define it; , being a coherent derived unit whose quantity is measured in the SI (metric system) as meters per second (m/s) or as the SI base unit of (m⋅s−1)
Speed a scalar quantity; the rate at which an object covers distance
Distance scalar quantity that refers to how much ground an object has covered during its motion
Acceleration vector quantity that is defined as the rate at which an object changes its velocity
Instantaneous velocity velocity of an object in motion at a specific point in time
equations of uniformly accelerated motion set of equations that describe an object's motion
acceleration due to gravity acceleration which is gained by an object because of gravitational force; a vector quantity - means it has both a magnitude and a direction; has a standard value defined as 9.8 m/s2
terminal velocity the constant speed that a freely falling object eventually reaches when the resistance of the medium through which it is falling prevents further acceleration
displacement time graphs reveals useful information about the velocity of the object (i.e. the velocity of an object at a given time); graph of motion
velocity time graphs reveals useful information about the acceleration of the object; if the acceleration is zero, then the slope is zero (i.e., a horizontal line); if the acceleration is positive, then the slope is positive (i.e., an upward sloping line)
acceleration time graphs the change in velocity in a given time interval is equal to the area under the graph during that same time interval
relative velocity the vector difference between the velocities of two bodies; the velocity of a body with respect to another regarded as being at rest
projectile motion any object that once projected or dropped continues in motion by its own inertia and is influenced only by the downward force of gravity; also an object which is thrown upward at an angle to the horizontal
inertia the resistance of any physical object to any change in its state of motion (includes changes to the object's speed, direction, or state of rest); the tendency of objects to keep moving in a straight line at a constant velocity
weight force exerted on a body of gravity
force something that causes a change in the motion of an object
Newton the SI unit of force; equal to the force that would give a mass of one kilogram an acceleration of one meter per second per second
Newton's first law of motion an object at rest stays at rest and an object in motion stays in motion with the same speed and in the same direction unless acted upon by an unbalanced force
Newton's second law of motion the acceleration of an object as produced by a net force is directly proportional to the magnitude of the net force, in the same direction as the net force, and inversely proportional to the mass of the object
Newton's third law of motion for every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction
Free-body Diagram diagrams used to show the relative magnitude and direction of all forces acting upon an object in a given situation
Friction refers to any force that resists relative tangential motion (slipping and/or sliding), or intended motion; its direction is opposite the relative velocity (or intended velocity)
Static Friction friction that exists between a stationary object and the surface on which it's resting
Dynamic Friction the force that must be overcome to maintain steady motion of one body relative to another because they remain in contact
Normal Reaction/Force support force exerted upon an object that is in contact with another stable object
Tension the force which is transmitted through a string, rope, wire, or cable when it is pulled tight by forces acting from each end; tensional force is directed along the wire and pulls equally on the objects on either end of the wire
upthrust the upward force that a liquid or gas exerts on a body floating in it
lift component of a force that is perpendicular to the oncoming flow direction; contrasts with the drag force, which is the component of the surface force parallel to the flow direction
transitional equilibrium when the sum of all the external forces acting on the object equals zero
rotational equilibrium the state of a system for which the total angular acceleration is zero
energy forms and transfers (first 5) 1. kinetic - motion 2. potential (gravitational) - position 3. electric/magnetic - charge 4. chemical - atoms 5. nuclear - △E=mc2
energy forms and transfers (second 5) 6. elastic (potential) - deformation 7. thermal (heat) - △ in temperature 8. mass - conversion to binding energy 9. vibration (sound) - mechanical waves 10. light - photons
work then a force that is applied to an object moves that object
joule energy used to accelerate a body with a mass of one kilogram using one newton of force over a distance of one meter; also equivalent to one watt-second
work done by a non-constant force object moving into space experiences a varying force that has a magnitude inversely proportional to the square of the distance
energy ability to do work; exists in many forms
kinetic energy energy an object has because of motion
gravitational potential energy energy an object has because of position
principle of conservation of energy when energy changes from one form to another, we find that nothing is lost
elastic collisions collision in which there is no loss of kinetic energy in the collision
inelastic collisions collision in which part of the kinetic energy is changed to some other form of energy in the collision
explosive collions each object involved encounters the same impulse to cause the same momentum change; the impulse and momentum change on each object is equal in magnitude and opposite in direction
power rate of doing work; measured in Watts (W)
efficiency percentage of energy transfer
linear momentum vector quantity defined as the product of an object's mass, m, and its velocity, v
impulse vector quantity defined as the product of the force acting on a body and the time interval during which the force is exerted
law of conservation of linear momentum has constant magnitude and direction if the system is subjected to no external force
force-time graphs shows the force of an object at a given time on a graph
Created by: meg.minor.15