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Chapter 1-2

Chemistry 1

Chemisrty The science that deals with the materials of the universe and the changes these materials undergo.
Common name for chemistry The central science - because most things involve chemical reactions - most careers involve chemistry
How many branches of chemistry are there? And what are they? 6 branches 1. Organic 2. Inorganic 3. Physical 4. Analytical 5. Biochemistry 6. Analytical
Organic chemistry Chemistry of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen (chemistry of life)
Inorganic chemistry Chemistry of compounds made from metals and non-metals
Physical chemistry Chemistry in terms of lawn of physics
Analytical Separating, identifying, and quantifying
Biochemistry Chemistry of living things
Theoretical Using mathematical models too predict the structure of compounds
Chemistry involves both ____ and ____ worlds Microscopic, macroscopic
Measurement An observation including a both number and a unit.
Scientific method Process of investigation to solve problems.
How many steps are there in the scientific method? 6
Steps of the scientific method 1. State the problem 2. Make observations 3. Form a hypothesis 4. Test the hypothesis 5. Analyze data 6. Form your conclusion
What do you do if your conclusion supports your hypothesis? Perform more experiments to continue testing your hypothesis.
What do you do if your conclusion does not support your hypothesis? Form a new hypothesis.
Quantitative observations Observations including numbers ex. height, weight, density, etc.
Qualitative observations Observations including qualities ex. color, feel, scent, etc.
Bias Expectations change how the results are viewed.
Theory Explanation of why something happens in nature based on repeated observations.
Natural law Statement about what happens in nature that seems to be true all the time (summary of our observations).
Do theories change? Yes!
Do Laws change? Yes!
Experiment Method of collecting data to test a hypothesis.
How many experimental steps are there? 5
Experimental steps 1. State the problem/question (must include both variables) 2. Form a hypothesis 3. Perform the procedure 4. Analyze data 5. Form a conclusion (positive, negative, or inconclusive)
Hypothesis Testable prediction based on an educated guess.
Matter Anything that has mass and takes up space.
Atom fundamental unit of which elements are made.
How many types of atoms are there? 118 (elements)
Element Only one type of atom. Can not be separated into simpler substances.
Allotrope Same element with a different physical form. ex. diamond, graphite, buckminsterfullerene (by the way that is my favorite word right now)
Compound Atoms of different elements chemically combine to form a new substance.
Molecule A collection of atoms together that act as a unit.
Physical proporty Characteristic that can change without changing the substance. ex. color, melting point, solubility, hardness, etc.
Chemical property Characteristic of a substance that describes its ability to change into a different substance. ex. flammability, toxicity, etc.
Physical change Change that does not change the composition of the substance. ex. cutting bread, melting ice, etc.
Chemical change Change from one substance to another substance. ex. burning wood, metal rusting, etc.
Created by: dkhorse