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Chem Test 2

Dmitri Mendeleev wrote PT on playing cards
Democritus atomos, properties of matter, matter is composed of atoms, atoms move through empty space
Aristotle empty space cannot exist, matter is made of earth fire air and water
John Dalton matter is composed of atoms, atoms are indivisible and indestructible, atoms of one element are different from another element, atoms combine to form compounds, Father of Modern Atomic Theory
Sir William Cookes cathode ray tube, discovered e-
JJ Thompson called e- 'corpuscles', plum pudding model
Robert Milliken oil drop experiment, measured the mass of an e-
Ernest Rutherford gold foil experiment, discovered p+ and nucleus
James Chadwick discovered neutron
Neils Bohr energy levels
Max Plank there is a relationship between quanta and its frequency
Erwin Schrodinger atomic orbitals
Atomic number number of protons
Isotope when the # of p+ does not equal the # of neutrons
Ion an atom with a charge as the product of either a loss or gain of an electron
# of neutrons= mass # - atomic #
Mass of p+ 1.673 x 10 (-24)g
Mass of n 1.675 x 10(-24)g
Amu atomic mass unit (1/12 C atom)
Planetary model by Ernest Rutherford
Emission giving off a photon
Absorption spectrum contains all wavelengths
Crest top of the wave
Trough bottom of the wave
Frequency how many waves per second
Amplitude length of the wave
Speed of light 3.00 x 10 to the 8th m/s
Speed of light = wave length x frequecy c= hf
When the wavelength is shorter the frequency is greater
Octet Rule every atom wants to have 8 valence electrons
The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle it is impossible to know the velocity and position of a particle at the same time
Aufbau Principle (Diagonal Rule) each electron occupies the lowest energy orbital available
Pauli Exclusion Principle a max of 2 e- can occupy a single atomic orbital; the e- must have opposite spins
Dalton's Atomic Theory matter is indivisble and indestructible, atoms of an element are the same
Hund's Rule Single e- with the same spin must occupy each equal-energy orbital before more e- with opposite spins can occupy the same orbitals
Ground state lowest energy where an e- can still live
Excited state when an e- gains energy
Valence e- the e- in the outermost shell
After the excited state absorption of energy happens
Atomic orbital a regional space around the nucleus where an atom can be found
Quantum numbers describe the orbital
Four quantum #s n, l, m, s
n energy level where e- exist
l sublevels (s [sharf], p [principal], d (defuse), f [fundamental])
m position on the XYZ axis
s spin within the orbital level
sharf 2 e-, spherical
principal 6 e-, dumb bell
defuse 10 e-, 5 suborbitals
fundamental 14 e-, 7 suborbitals
periodic law there is a periodic repetition of chemical and physical properties of the elements when they are arranged by increasing atomic number
groups (families) vertical columns
periods horizontal rows
groups 1,2, and 13-18 representative elements
groups 3-12 transition elements
classifications of elements metals, non-metals, and metalloids
metals good conductor of heat and electricity
alkali metal besides hydrogen, all the elements in group 1
alkaline earth metals group 2; highly reactive
transition elements transition metals and inner transition metals
inner transition metals lanthanide series and actinide series
nonmetals elements that are generally gases or brittle, dull-colored solids
group 17 halogens, very reactive
group 18 noble gases, unreactive
metalloid has physical and chemical properties of both metals and nonmetals
ionization energy energy required to remove an electron from a gaseous atom
electronegativity the relative ability of its atoms to attract electrons in a chemical bond
Created by: Jaspergem