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Test 2 term 2

QuestionAnswer
Cyanobacteria
Epiphyte
Nitrogen fixation
Frustule
Epitheca
Hypotheca
Auxospore
Chrysophyte
Bloom
Bioluminescent
Red tide
Cyst
Xanthophyll
Phycobilins
Chlorophyll
Accessory pigment
Critical depth
Kelp
Blade
Stipe
Hold fast
Pneumatocyst
Sporophyte
Gametophyte
Spore
Emergent plant community
Submergent plant community
Prokaryotic
Eukaryotes
Photosynthesis
Benthic
Pelagic
Silica
Calcium carbonate
Coccolith
Flagella
Zooxanthellae
Standing crop
Remote sensing
Limiting factor
Photinhibition
Trace elements
Primary production
Langmuir cells
Alternation of generations
Diploid
Haploid
Rhizomes
3 different types of phytoplankton
Important Cyanobacteria functions
How diatoms reproduce
How bioluminescence works and the chemicals involved
Red tide and how it affects us
Adaptions of phytoplankton
3 major group of algae
4 major Structure of algae plant
Alternation of generations life cycle pattern
Anthophyte SPARTINA ( cord grass) and zostera ( eel grass)
Marine anthophye examples
Floating vs submergent vs emergent plant communities and examples
How photosynthesis works and equation
Gross vs net primary production and methods to analyze pp
Gross vs net continued
Factors effecting pp
Factors affecting pp continued
CHNOPS
Blue green algae PROKARYOTIC descended from original earth inhabitants 3bya +
Attached to larger plants
Conversion of atmospheric nitrogen to other forms of nitrogen used by eukaryotic plants
Amount of plant material alive at any one time Can be applied to algae, all plants, phytoplankton
Same as photosynthesis Creates high energy organic material from CO2 H20 and other nutrients using solar energy
Cyanobacteria Chrysophyta Dinophyta
Nitrogen fixation Produces roughly 60% of earth oxygen Originally filled atmosphere with oxygen Important role in fertility/ production of sea grass beds
Phaeophyta Rhodophyta Chlorophyta
Blade- leaf like does photosynthesis Pneumatocysts- gas like filled floatation devices Stipe- stem like structure very flexible Hold fast- resembles roots only holds plant in substrate Doesn’t absorb nutrients like roots
multicellular haploid plant structure is called the gametophyte, which is formed from the spore and give rise to the haploid gametes. The fluctuation between these diploid and haploid stages that occurs in plants is called the alternation of generations.
Flowering plant Usually along seashore Have leaves stems and roots Reproduce underwater pollen carried by currents Seed float away or drop into mud and germinate
Rhizomes- horizontal stems anchor plants in substrate Used as food source Used as food source for many animals
asexually, via binary fission sexually, through meiosis and fertilization. capable of switching back and forth from sexual to asexual reproduction and also an inactive phase when necessary.
Luciferin is oxidized by enzyme luciferase Produces glowing greenish light
Certain dinophyta produce toxins then there is a bloom of this dinophyta Can cause skin and respiratory issues in humans Mostly harmful to fish... can hurt fishing industry
Size- small bc it helps keep large surface area to volume ratio Lessening density- adjusts to unfavorable conditions Long spines and horns dormancy in cysts, movement
Emergent- plant growth above sea surface SALT MARSH AND MANGROVE submergent- plant growth below low tide line KELP BEDS AND SEA GRASS BED floating- floats on water surface LILY PAD TOAD STOOLS
6H2O + 6CO2 yields C6H12O6 + 6O2 Creating high energy organic material from CO2 H2O and other nutrients using solar energy
Gross- total amount of organic material produced in sea by photosynthesis Net- any excess production used for growth, reproduction, and losses due to death Chlorophyll A method- measures amount of chlorophyll present in certain area using satellite
Methods to analyze pp Harvest method- measures biomass Light and dark bottles- measures O2 lost to respiration, light was total gained add them together to get GPP Nielsen method- measures amount of C14 assimilated by PPK in tissue
Light- must remain in photic zone ( depth changes due to angle of sun, atmosphere) Nutrient requirements- calcium and silicon for shells CHNOPS. Nutrient lie below photic zone. Mixing occurs due to temperature change
Grazing- phytoplankton eaten by zooplankton which excrete or did and are recycled into useable substances by Bacteria Temperature- pp has optimal temp range Carbon dioxide- concentration level not usually issue Seasonal patterns- light intensity
carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus, sulfur, six most important chemical elements whose covalent combinations make up most biological molecules on Earth.
Phytoplankton CYANOBACTERIA Example Spirulina aka blue green algae PROKARYOTIC Descendant from original earth Inhabitants (3+bya) Very abundant in intertidal areas Encrusted on rocks in internal area as colonies Many benthic species as long as there’s light
Chrysophyta phytoplankton 3 groups= silicoflagellate, coccolithophores, diatom Unicellular, eukaryotes, autotroph, chlorophyll Aand C and carotenoids Some have flagella some just drift Silica/ calcium carbonate walls
Dinophyta phytoplankton Zooxanthellae Unicellular 2 flagella several chloroplasts Cellulose plates arranged over cell surface Pigments= chlorophyll A and C carotenoids fucoxanthin Cause red tides have rapid reproduction w/ blooms
Phaeophyta Kelp/ brown algae Chlorophyll A and C xanthophyll and carotenes X gives them golden color
Rhodophyta Red algae Chlorophyll A, phycobilins, carotenes Phycobilins give red/ blue color
Chlorophyta Green algae Chlorophyll A and B and carotene Chlorophyll gives green color
Luciferin is oxidized by enzyme luciferase Produces glowing greenish light
Certain dinophyta produce toxins then there is a bloom of this dinophyta
Depth where photosynthesis stops
Blade- leaf like does photosynthesis
Stipe- stem like structure very flexible
Hold fast- resembles roots only holds plant in substrate Doesn’t absorb nutrients like roots
Pneumatocysts- gas like filled floatation devices
Satellite measures pp
light-induced reduction in the photosynthetic capacity of a plant, alga, or cyanobacterium.
chemical element required only in minute amounts by living organisms for normal growth.
Rotation of life cycle phases between sporophyte and gametophyte
Have large sculptured pits arranged in geometric shapes called areolus the silicified cell wall of a diatom, consisting of two valves or overlapping halves.
outer or upper half or valve of the diatom frustule make up frustule
inner and younger layer of the cell wall of a diatom. Make up frustule
Naked diatom cell when they get too small
rapid increase in the population of algae
small capsulelike sac that encloses certain organisms in their dormant or larval stage.
yellow or brown carotenoid plant pigment that causes the autumn colors of leaves.
group of red or blue photosynthetic pigments present in some algae.
green pigment, present in all green plants and in cyanobacteria, responsible for the absorption of light to provide energy for photosynthesis.
photosynthetic pigment that traps light energy and channels it to chlorophyll a, the primary pigment, which initiates the reactions of photosynthesis Carotenoids phycobilins chlorophyll bcd
asexual and usually diploid phase, producing spores from which the gametophyte arises.
gamete-producing and usually haploid phase, producing the zygote from which the sporophyte arises. It is the dominant form in bryophytes.
a haploid reproductive cell that gives rise to a gametophyte.
Emergent- plant growth above sea surface SALT MARSH AND MANGROVE
submergent- plant growth below low tide line KELP BEDS AND SEA GRASS BED f
No nucleus single celled
organism consisting of a cell or cells in which the genetic material is DNA in the form of chromosomes in nucleus
Creating high energy organic material from CO2 H2O and other nutrients using solar energy
Lowest deepest layer
upper layers of the open sea.
hard, unreactive, colorless compound that occurs as the mineral quartz and as a principal constituent of sandstone and other rocks.
white, insoluble solid occurring naturally as chalk, limestone, marble, and calcite, and forming mollusk shells and stony corals.
Shell of cocoolithosphore
Organelle on the outside of an organism that is used primarily for movement
yellowish-brown symbiotic dinoflagellate present in large numbers in the cytoplasm of many marine invertebrates.
environmental conditions that limit the growth, abundance, or distribution of an organism or a population of organisms in an ecosystem. ... The limiting factor also causes competition between individuals of a species population. For example, space is a li
parallel Pairs of small counter rotating convection cells driven by surface winds
2 complete sets of chromosome, one from each parent
Have 1 set of chromosomes
rootlike subterranean stem, commonly horizontal in position, that usually produces roots below and sends up shoots progressively from the upper surface.
Created by: Iamnotmaddy