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GCSE9 Struct & Prop

AQA GCSE chapter 03 (part2 ) Bonding, structure and properties

QuestionAnswer
Describe how particles are arranged in an ionic structure Ions are arranged in 3dimensions; the ions create a LATTICE of ALTERNATE positive ions and negative ions
Describe THREE properties of ionic compounds Conduct electricity when liquid; high meting point and dissolve in water
Explain why ionic compounds are able to conduct electricity when liquid but not as a solid CHARGED particles (here ions) are able to MOVE in a liquid; but in a solid the charged particles can NOT move
Explain why ionic compounds have a high melting point There are STRONG electrostatic BONDBETWEEN the ions that require a lot of ENERGY to break
How do you know that CO2 is a covalent compound? Both C and O are non-metals
What is covalent bonding? SHARING of PAIR of electrons (two keywords to remember!)
How to you draw a dot and cross diagram? Overlap circles; in the middle place a dot and a cross; check the group number
What is special about the dot and cross diagram of CO2? There are TWO dots and TWO crosses (ie TWO pairs of electrons) in each overlap
State 3 properties of simple covalent compounds Low melting point; do not conduct electricity;do not dissolve
Describe how to draw the dot and cross diagram for CCl4 Draw one circle for the Carbon atom; overlap FOUR circles (one for each chlorine atom) with the carbon; dot and cross in middle; add remaining 6 electrons on the Chlorine circles
Describe how to draw the dot and cross diagram for NH3 Draw one circle for the Nitrogen Atom; overlap 3 circles (One for each Hydrogen) with the Nitrogen; dot and cross in the middle; add remaining two electrons on the nitrogen circle
Explain why simple covalent chemicals like Methane (CH4) have low melting point There are weak BONDBETWEEN MOLECULES; very little ENERGY is required to separate the molecules
Explain why simple covalent compounds do not conduct electricity There are no CHARGES (like electrons) able to MOVE (because they are shared/stuck in the middle)
Name the two forms of Carbon Diamond and Graphite
State the difference in properties between Diamond and Graphite Diamond is very hard; Graphite is very soft and comes in layers
describe the structure of Graphite Each atom of Carbon is linked to 3 other Carbons; the Carbons form sheets/layers that are loosely bonded
Describe the structure of Diamond Each Carbon atom is bonded to 4 other Carbon; the Carbons form a 3D network
Explain why Graphite conducts electricity Each Carbon is linked to 3 other Carbons; so each Carbon has a spare electron; all the spares electrons are DELOCALISED (do not stay on one carbon; are shared with all the atoms); electrons can move BETWEEN LAYERS
Explain why Diamond does not conduct electricity Each Carbon is linked to 4 other Carbon atoms; there is no spare electron; there are no charges able to move
Explain why graphite has a high melting point Because there are MANY strong COVALENT bondbetween ATOMS to break and this requires a lot of energy to break; remember to clearly write WHICH PARTICLES
Explain why diamond is so hard Because there are MANY strong COVALENT bondbetween ATOMS to break and this requires a lot of energy to break; remember to clearly write WHICH PARTICLES
Why is graphite soft? Because there are weak BONDBETWEEN layers of ATOMS so little energy is required to break these bonds
Describe metallic structure A lattice of FIXED positive ions surrounded by a SEA of DELOCALISED electrons
State 2 properties of metallic structure Conduct electricity; High melting point
Explain why metallic structures conduct electricity There are CHARGED particles (delocalised electrons) that are able to to MOVE
Explain why Iron has a high melting point Because there are strong BONDBETWEEN positive IONS and delocalised ELECTRONS and this requires a lot of energy to break; remember to clearly write WHICH PARTICLES
Explain why metals are malleable because when a metal is hit, a layer of ion slides over the other layers but the positive ions are still held together by delocalised electrons
Compare the structure of an alloy to the structure of a metal In an alloy, there are BIGGER atoms than in the metal atoms; this means that the layers of atoms are distorted
Explain why an alloy is stronger than a pure metal In an alloy, there are BIGGER atoms than in the metal atoms; this means that the layers of atoms are distorted; so when an alloy is hit the layers cannot slide past one other.
A chemical conduct electricity when molten but not as a solid: what type of structure? Ionic structure
A chemical does not conduct electricity and has a low melting point. What type of structure? Simple Covalent
A chemical does not conduct electricity and has a high melting point. What type of structure? Giant Covalent
A chemical conducts electricity when liquid and solid and has a high melting point. What type of structure? Metallic
What are the properties of nanotubes? they are light, yet very strong and conduct electricity
What are nanotubes used for? making tennis rackets (strong but light)
What are nanoparticles used for? Titanium oxide nanoparticles help break down the dirt on glass windows; they are also used in sunscreens; Silver nanoparticles inhibit the growth of microorganisms
What is the risk of nanoparticles? they could damage lungs, get in our bloodstream and the effects in our blood are unknown
(TRIPLE ONLY) what is a nanometre 0.000000001m or 10^-9m
(TRIPLE ONLY) how many nanometres in a micrometre? LEARN: 1 micrometre is 10^-6m; so 1nanometre is 1000 times smaller than a micrometre
(TRIPLE ONLY) what happens to the surface area to volume ratio when the size of a cube is decreased by 10? the surface area to volume ratio INCREASE by a factor of 10! This make nanoparticles much more reactive than normal sized particles
(TRIPLE ONLY) how many nanometres in a micrometre? LEARN: 1 picometre is 10^-12m; so 1nanometre is 1000 times bigger than a picometre
Created by: ursulinechem2