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Chapter 4: Alkanes

Nomenclature, Conformational Analysis, and an Intro to Synthesis

Hydrocarbons, as the name implies, are compounds whose molecules contain: Carbon and Hydrogen
Carbon characteristic of alkanes Carbon-carbon bonds are singular
Hydrocarbons with carbon-carbon double bond Alkenes
Hydrocarbons with carbon-carbon triple bond Alkynes
Def. of cycloalkanes Alkanes in which all or some of the carbon atoms are arranged in a ring
A cycloalkane containing a single ring have ____ _____ hydrogen atoms than regular alkanes Two fewer
This alkane makes up 80% of our natural gas Methane
What is the bond angle of ALL alkanes? 109.5 degrees
What is the geometry of ALL alkanes? Tetrahedral
Hybridization of ALL alkanes? sp3
Are alkanes saturated or unsaturated compounds? and why? Saturated, because they are single bonds. They contain the most hydrogens thatthey are able to possess.
What alkane makes up 20% of our natural gas? Ethane
Name for alkane that can have different structures while having the same formula: constitutional isomers
Alkane (minus) Hydrogen = Alkyl (change -ane to -yl)
Four halogens found in alkylhalides: F- fluoro; Cl- chloro; Br- bromo; I- iodo
Hydrocarbons have high or low melting and boiling points? Low (Van der Waals forces)
Alkylhalides - MP and BP compared to hydrocarbons? Slightly higher
Solubility of hydrocarbons Not soluble in H20
Solubility of alkylhalides Slightly soluble in H20
Name of hydrocarbon involved in communication Communication
Name of hydrocarbon described as a "sex attractant". Undecane
The ONLY drinkable alcohol: I: Ethanol (C: Ethyl alcohol)
T/F - Alcohol is an alkane. False
Wood alcohol is what type of alcohol? Methanol
What makes up denatured alcohol? Ethanol mixed with methanol
Uses for methanol: Fuel for high-performance cars and race cars
How does methanol burn? Intense yet unnoticeable light blue flame
Alternative name for methanol: Wood alcohol
Alpha carbons are connected to ____ OH
Beta carbons are attached to ___ Alpha carbon
Primary (1º) atom characteristic: One beta carbon connected to alpha carbon
Secondary (2º) atom characteristic: Two beta carbons connected to alpha carbon
Tertiary (3º) atom characteristic: Three beta carbons connected to alpha carbon
Stereoisomers - characteristic Same structures, different arrangement in space. trans/cist
Trans = Across
Cist = Boat-shaped
Cist & trans are meant for all ______ Non-1-alkenes
Solubility of alcohol Soluble in H2O up to 6 carbons
Properties of alcohol High MP & BP (hydrogen bonds)
What type of alkane is most stable hydrocarbon? Cycloalkanes
The most stable cycloalkane: Cyclohexane
Most stable sawhorse structure Chair configuration
Least stable sawhorse structure Boat configuration
All cycloalkanes want what angle? 109.5º
Cyclopropane gets what BA? 60º
Cyclobutane gets what BA? 90º
Cyclopentane gets what BA? 108º
How do you calculate Angle Strain? Ideal angle (109.5º) - Actual Angle = Angle Strain
When the actual angle goes beyond 360º, you add ______ for each side. 180º
When the number of sides is higher than 6, the angle _______ __ ______ and hydrogens overlap, getting in the way. Remain at 109.5º
What results from a cycloalkane containing more than 6 sides? Stearic hindrance
Hydrogenation - hydrogenated = Trans fats
Created by: CBaney