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Nuclear Chemistry


What determines whether a nucleus is stable or not? The neutron to proton ratio.
The ratio a nucleus should have in order to be stable is determined by the ___________ ______ __________. Belt of stability.
Nuclei that have more than -- protons are unstable. 83.
Why does radioactive decay occur? To correct the ratio of neutrons to protons and stabilize the nucleus.
True or False: A series of decay reactions may be necessary to stabilize the nucleus. True.
Elements with atomic numbers lower than 83 that have isotopes that are unstable. Radioisotopes.
Radioactivity. Spontaneous breaking down of the nucleus with the release of particles and energy.
What does the top number of a wave/particle represent? Mass in amu.
What does the bottom number of a wave/particle represent? Charge.
What is the penetrating ability of alpha radiation? Low.
What is the penetrating ability of beta radiation? Moderate.
What is the penetrating ability of positrons? Moderate.
What is the penetrating ability of gamma radiation? Very high.
Alpha radiation- wave or particle? Particle.
Beta radiation- wave or particle? Particle.
Positron radiation- wave or particle? Particle.
Gamma radiation- wave or particle? Wave.
What types of radiation would be attracted to the positive plate? Beta.
What types of radiation would be attracted to the negative plate? Alpha and positron.
What types of radiation would go straight through an electric field? Neutrons and gamma.
Transmutation. When the atomic nucleus of one element is changed into the nucleus of a different element.
Result of the decay of an unstable nucleus. Daughter nucleus.
Artificial transmutation. When the nucleus of a particle is bombarded with high energy particles.
What do high energy particles include? Protons, alpha particles, neutrons, or a nucleus of another element.
___________ transmutations only have one reactant. Natural.
____________ transmutations always have more than one item to the left of the arrow. Artificial.
Uniting light nuclei to form heavier nuclei and energy. Fusion.
What elements are frequently used in fusion? Hydrogen is converted to helium.
Where does most fusion take place? The Sun.
Example of fusion. Hydrogen bomb.
Pros of fusion. Clean nuclear energy, no radioactive wastes.
Cons of fusion. High temperatures and pressures are needed.
Why are high temperatures and pressures necessary for fusion? They are needed in order to combine like nuclei, since all nuclei are positively charged.
Splitting heavier nuclei into lighter nuclei. Fission.
Elements frequently used in fission. Uranium and lead.
Example of controlled fission. Nuclear power plant.
Example of uncontrolled fission. Nuclear bomb.
Pros of fission. No fossil fuels used, reduces harmful emissions, uses small amounts of fuel, produces a large amount of energy.
Cons of fission. Nuclear meltdowns, contains radioactive wastes, thermal pollution.
Formula for mass that is converted into energy. E=mc squared
Mass of reactants is ____________ than the mass of the product. Greater.
What types of radioisotopes are ideal for nuclear medicine? Ones with short half lives that are quickly eliminated from the body.
What are tracers used for? To follow the path of a material in a system and concentrate a particular part of the body without reacting.
Detection and treatment of thyroid problems. I-131.
Used for the detection of brain tumors and cancers. Tc-99.
Emits a large amount of gamma rays as it decays, rays are aimed at cancerous tumors. Co-60.
Gamma rays from Co-60 and Cs-137. Anthrax Bacilli.
Carbon dating can be used for.... Organic materials under 40,000 years.
Helps determine the age of organic materials, fossils, and artifacts. C-14.
What happens when an organism dies? It stops taking in carbon-14.
How is U-238 utilized in geological dating? Comparing the amount of U-238 to the daughter nucleus of Pb- 206.
What is dating based on? Half lives.
What is geological dating used for? Bedrocks and other rock formations.
How is radiation used for food preservation? Gamma radiation kills bacteria, industrial applications.
Half life. Time required for the amount of radioactive material to decrease by one half.
True or False: Radioactive substances decay at a constant rate. True.
What does NOT affect radioactive decay? Temperature, pressure, and concentration of the isotope
Created by: emarciante10