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Chemistry Chapter 4

Dalton's Atomic Theory Part 1 1. All matter is made of small particles called atoms
Dalton's Atomic Theory Part 2 2. All atoms in an element are identical
Dalton's Atomic Theory Part 3 3. Atoms cannot be created, divided, or destroyed
Dalton's Atomic Theory Part 4 4. Different atoms combine to make compounds
Dalton's Atomic Theory Part 5 5. Chemical reaction-atoms are separated or combined
Democritus's Ideas Part 1 1. Matter is composed of empty space through which atoms move.
Democritus's Ideas Part 2 2. Atoms are solid, homogeneous, indestructible, and indivisible.
Democritus's Ideas Part 3 3. Different kinds of atoms have different sizes and shapes.
Democritus's Ideas Part 4 4. The differing properties of matter are due to the size, shape, and movement of atoms.
Democritus's Ideas Part 5 5. Apparent changes in matter result from changes in the groupings of atoms and not from changes in the atoms themselves.
Atom The smallest particle of an element that retains the properties of the element.
Cathode Ray A ray of radiation that originates from the cathode and travels to the anode of a cathode ray tube.
Electron Negatively charged particles that are part of all forms of matter.
Nucleus A small, positively charged, dense center of an atom that contains protons and neutrons. It is surrounded by empty space through which electrons move.
Proton A subatomic particle in the nucleus with a 1+ charge
Neutron A neutral subatomic particle in the nucleus with the same mass as the protons
Atomic Number The number of protons in an atom. This determines what element it is. It is the number above the symbol on a periodic table and determines where it is on the periodic table. atomic number=number of protons=number of neutrons
Isotope Atoms with the same number of protons, but different number of neutrons.
Mass Number Sum of protons and neutrons in a nucleus. The number is added after the element's name to distinguish which isotope it is.
Atomic Mass Unit (amu) One-twelfth the mass of a carbon-12 atom
Atomic Mass The weighted average mass of the isotopes of that element
Cathode Ray Tube Experiment-process A tube is filled with low pressure gas. An electrode at each end is attached to a battery. Light flashes from the cathode ray
Cathode Ray Tube Experiment-results 1. Particles of the ray are in all matter 2.Cathode rays are streams of charged particles 3. These particles carry a negative charge
J.J. Thompson Discovered the existence of subatomic particles using cathode ray tube experiments. Plum Pudding Model
Robert Millikan Determined each electron was 1- charge and calculated an electron's mass
Plum Pudding Model Negatively charged electrons were distributed thought a uniform positive charge.
Ernest Rutherford Used gold foil experiment to disprove the plum pudding model. Discovered the nucleus.
Gold Foil Experiment-process A beam of alpha particles is aimed at a gold foil. A zinc sulfide screen surrounds the foil and marks where the alpha particles hit.
Gold Foil Experiment-results Some alpha particles deflected at large angles. Nuclear Atom Model developed
Nuclear Atom Model Most of an atoms is electrons moving rapidly through empty space surrounding a nucleus and are held to the atom by their attraction to the positively charged nucleus.
James Chadwick Discovered neutrons
Subatomic Particles Electrons, protons, and neutrons that make up all atoms
Calculate number of protons atomic number = number of protons = number of electrons
Calculate number of electrons atomic number = number of protons = number of electrons
Calculate number of neutrons Mass number - atomic number = number of neutrons
Mass of an Electron .000549 amu
Mass of a Proton 1.007 amu
Mass of a Neuton 1.008 amu
Oil Drop Experiment-results determined the charge of an electron
Rutherford's Proton Experiment Gold Foil Experiment
Chadwick's Neutron Experiment Using scatter measurements
Created by: Lachelle