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Chemistry Ch.4

Ch.4 matter

compund is a distinct substance that is composed of the atoms of two or more elements and always contains exactly the same relative masses of those elements
chemical formula the types of atoms and the number of each type in each unit (molecule) of a given compound are conveniently expressed
elements symbol abbreviations of elements
law of constant compsition that a given compound always has the same composition, regardless of where it comes from
electrons negative particles
nuclear atom an atom with a dense center of positive charge around which tiny electrons moved in a space that was otherwise
.proton has the same magnitude (size) of charge as the electron, but its charge is positive
neutron is slightly more massive then a proton. It has no charge
isotopes atoms with the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons
atomic number number of neutrons and the number of atoms
mass number the sum of the number of neutrons and the number of protons in a given nucleus
periodic table list of elements that increase by atomic number
groups families of elements with similar chemical properties that lie in the same vertical column on the periodic table
alkaline metals first column of elements (group 1)
alkaline earth metals Group 2 elements
halogens group 7 elements
noble gases group 8 elements
transition metals large collection of elements that spans many vertical columns
most elements are metals
physical properties of metals efficient conduction of heat and elctricity malleability ductility a lustrous appearance
malleability can be hammered into thin sheets
ductility can be pulled into wires
lustrous shiny
nonmetals relatively small number of elements that appear in the upper right corner of the periodic table
metalloids elements that show a mixture of metallic and nonmetallic properties
diatomic molecules molecules made up of of two atoms
allotropes different forms of a given element
buckminstrefullerene three allotropes of carbon are the familiar and graphite forms plus a form that has only recently discovered
Created by: madison.w