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Chapter 2

Neuron a nerve cell that sends messages throughout the body i.e. an itch, coordinates movement, etc.
Dendrites short fibers that extend from the cell body to receive messages from other neurons
Axon terminals small branching structures that release neurotransmitters
Axons trunklike structures that extend from the cell body
Myelin sheath insulating layer that helps speed up the transmission of nerve impulses
Neurotransmitters neurons that send messages to other neurons through chemical substances; they cause chemical changes in receiving neurons . Psychiatric drugs increase the availability of them.
Acelycholine controls muscle contractions and memory, reduced levels are associated with Alzheimer's
Dopamine regulates muscle contractions and mental processes involving learning, memory and emotion. Overuse of it is associated with the development of schizophrenia.
Norepinephrine involved in learning and memory; irregular levels associated with mood disorders like depression
Serotonin regulates mood, appetite and sleep; irregular levels are associated with depression and eating disorders
Synapse small gap between a sending and a receiving neuron
Receptor sites places where neurotransmitters are received
Psychodynamic theory based on the belief that the roots of psychological problems involve unconscious motives and conflicts from childhood
Epigenetics the study of how environmental factors influence how genes are expressed (turned on and off) in people
Preconscious memories that one isn't aware of but that can be realized by focusing on them i.e. phone number
Unconscious largest part of the mind whose contents can only be brought to awareness with severe difficulty, Freud believed it was the collection of all our drives he referred to as instincts which are primarily sexual and aggressive
Id part of our psyche, present at birth that contains basic drives and instincts like hunger, thirst, sex and aggression. Completely in the unconscious mind.
Ego develops in the first year of life to help learn ways to deal with frustration; controls the demands of the id and directs behavior to stay within social norms and expectations so gratification can be achieved
Pleasure principle what the id follows, instant gratification of instincts without regard for social needs or others' needs
Reality principle considers what's practical and possible and the urges of the id, it is the foundation for developing a conscious sense of self
Defense mechanisms psychological defenses that prevent socially unacceptable impulses from becoming part of consciousness, regression- forgetting in which unacceptable wishes, urges and impulses to the unconscious
Unconditional positive regard shows that people are valued regardless of behavior according to Carl Rogers
Conditional positive regard acceptance of people only when they behave the way someone wants them to
Psychodynamic therapy tries to help people gain insight into and resolve dynamic conflicts within the unconscious mind that is believed to cause abnormal behavior
Free association process of expressing whatever comes to mind out loud without censorship
Transference how clients respond to therapists and how it reflects how they relate to others; gives a way to reenact childhood conflicts like unresolved anger
Empathy reflection of others' feelings and experiences through the observance of others' perspectives
Genuineness ability to be open about feelings
Congruence coherence of thoughts, feelings or behaviors
Psychopharmacology use of biomedical therapies including psychiatric drugs in the treatment of mental illness
Antianxiety drugs help reduce anxiety and muscle tension include mild tranquilizers, such as those of the benzodiazapine class of drugs, for example, diazepam (Valium) and alprazolam (Xanax), as well as hypnotic sedatives, such as triazolam (Halcion).
Rebound anxiety problem associated with regular use of tranquilizers; anxiety or insomnia returns when drugs are discontinued
Antipsychotic drugs Neuroleptics, are commonly used to treat the more flagrant features of schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders, such as hallucinations, delusions, and states of confusion. any of these drugs, including chlorpromazine (Thorazine),
Antidepressant drugs four classes include tricyclics (TCAs), monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors, selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), and serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs)
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) an electric shock is sent through the patient's brain, sufficient to induce convulsions of the type found in epilepsy patients. used for many people with major depression who have failed to respond to