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chemistry chp2

polymer A substance of high molecular weight with long, chain-like molecules consisting of many similar(repeated units).
isotope Different atomic forms of the same element , which vary only in the number of neurons they contain; the heavier species tend to be radioactive.
atomic number The number of protons in an atom.
mass number Sum of the number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom.
mole A __ of any element or compound is equal to its atomic weight or its molecular weight( sum of atomic weights) measured in grams.
atomic weight The average of the mass numbers of all the isotopes of an element.
compound Substance composed of two or more different elements, the atoms of which are chemically united.
mixture Substances composed of two or more components physically intermixed. 3 basic types are solutions, colloids, suspensions.
radioisotopes Isotope that exhibits radioactive behavior.
colloids 1 A mixture in which the solute particles (usually proteins) do not settle out readily. 2 substance in the thyroid gland containing thyroglobulin protein.
suspensions Heterogeneous mixtures with large, often visible solutes that tend to settle out.
cation An ion with a positive charge.
anion An ion carrying one or more negative charges and therefore attracted to a positive pole.
covalent bond Chemical bond created by electron sharing between atoms.
dipole Nonsymmetrical molecules that contain electrically unbalanced atoms. A polar molecule.
polar molecule Nonsymmetrical molecules that contain electrically unbalanced atoms.
chemical equilibrium A state of apparent repose created by two reactions proceeding in opposite directions at equal speed.
sythesis (combination) reaction A chemical reaction in which larger, more complex atoms or molecules are formed from simpler ones.
anabolism Energy- requiring building phase of metabolism in which simpler substances are combined to form more complex substances.
oxidized Process of substances combining with oxygen or the removal of hydrogen.
catabolism Process in which living cells break down substances into simpler substances.
oxidation-reduction reactions (redox reactions) A reaction that couples the oxidation (loss of electrons) of one substance with the reduction (gain of electrons) of another substance.
ion Atom or molecule with a positive or negative electric charge.
Electrolyte Chemical substances, such as salts, acids, and bases, that ionize and dissociate in water and are capable of conducting an electrical current.
mitosis Process during which the chromosomes are redistributed to two daughter nuclei; nuclear division. Consists of prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase.
ionic bond Chemical bond formed by electron transfer between atoms.
Solutions Homogeneous mixtures of components that may be gases, liquids, or solids.
Solvent the substance present in the greatest amount or dissolving medium.
Molarity Moles per liter
Molecular weight sum of the atomic weights.
exergonic reactions reactions that release energy.
endergonic reactions reaction that absorbs energy.
hydrolysis process in which water is used to split a substance into smaller particles.
dehydration systhesis process by which a large molecule is synthesized by removing water and covalently bonding smaller molecules together.
homogeneous mixture has the same composition throughout.
isomer One of two or more substances that has the same molecular formula but with its atoms arranged differently.
Molar A solution concentration determined by mass of solute- 1 liter of solution contains an amount of solute equal to its molecular weight in grams.
Created by: chasi