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A2 Chemistry

Acid dissociation constant, K(a) The acid dissociation constant of an acid HA is defined at K(a)=[H+(aq)][A-(aq)]/[HA(aq)].
Activation energy The minimum energy required to start a reaction by breaking bonds in the reactants.
Addition polymer A very long molecular chain formed by repeated addition reactions of many unsaturated alkene molecules (monomers).
Addition reaction A reaction in which a reactant is added to an unsaturated molecule to make a saturated molecule.
Aliphatic hydrocarbon A hydrocarbon where carbon atoms are joined together in straight or branched chains.
Alkali A base that dissolves in water forming OH-(aq) ions.
Alkanes The homologous series with the general formula C(n)H(2n+2).
Alkylammonium salt A compound where the hydrogen(s) on an ammonium ion have been substituted by alkyl chains.
Alkylation Addition of hydrocarbon chains to an organic compound.
Alkyl group An alkane with a hydrogen atom removed, e.g. CH3, C2H5; often shown as 'R'
Amide A class of compound with a functional group made of an acyl group, which is directly attached to an amine.
Amount of substance The quantity whose unit is the mole. Chemists use "amount of substance" as a means of counting atoms.
Amphoteric chemicals Chemicals that can react with both acids and bases.
Anion A negatively charged ion.
Anhydrous A substance that contains no water molecules.
Arrhenius plot A graph of In k =In A - Ea/R x 1/T where In K is plotted against 1/T
Atomic orbital A region of space where it is likely that you will find electrons. Each orbital can hold up to two electrons, with opposite spins.
Atomic (proton) number The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom.
Average bond enthalpy The mean energy needed for 1 mole of a given type of gaseous bonds to undergo homolytic fission.
Avogadro constant The number of atoms per mole of the carbon-12 isotope (6.02 x 10(23) mol(-1).
Base A chemical that will react with an acid.
Benzene A naturally occurring aromatic compound, which is a very stable planar ring structure with delocalised electrons.
Benzene derivative A benzene ring that has undergone a substitution reaction.
Boltzmann distribution The distribution of energies of molecules at a particular temperature, often shown as a graph.
Bronsted-Lowry acid A proton, H+, donor.
Bronsted-Lowry base A proton, H+, acceptor.
Buffer solution A mixture that minimises pH changes on addition of small amounts of acid or base. The word "minimises" is essential to this definition.
Carbocation An organic ion in which a carbon atom has a positive charge.
Catalyst A substance that increases the rate of a reaction without being used up in the process.
Cation A positively charged ion.
Chemical shift The scale that compares the frequency of NMR absorption with the frequency of the reference peak of TMS.
Chiral carbon A chiral carbon has four different groups attached to it.
Chromatogram A visible record showing the result of separation of the components of a mixture by chromatography.
Cis-trans isomerism A type of E/Z isomerism where each carbon of the C=C double bond caries the same atom or group.
Complex ion A transition metal ion bonded to one or more ligands by coordination bonds (dative covalent bonds).
Condensation polymerisation The chemical reaction to form a long-chain molecule by elimination of a small molecule, such as water.
Conjugate acid-base pair Two species that transform into each other by gain or loss of a proton.
Coordination number The total number of coordinate bonds formed between a central metal ion and its ligands.
Covalent bond A bond formed by a shared pair of electrons between nuclei.
Curly arrow A symbol used in reaction mechanisms to show the movement of an electron pair.
Dative covalent bond A bond formed by a shared pair of electrons that has been provided by one of the bonding atoms only. Also known as a coordinate bond.
Degradable polymer A polymer that breaks down into smaller fragments when exposed to light, heat or moisture.
Delocalised electrons Electrons that are shared between more than two atoms.
Deuterium An isotope of hydrogen and does not produce a signal in the proton NMR spectrum.
Directing effect How a functional group attached directly to an aromatic ring affects which atoms are more likely to undergo substitution.
Displayed formula A formula which shows the relative positions of atoms and the bonds between them.
Disproportionation The oxidation and reduction of the same element in a redox reaction.
Distillation A technique used to separate miscible liquids or solutions.
Dynamic equilibrium The equilibrium that exists in a closed system when the rate of the forward reaction is equal to the rate of the reverse reaction and all the chemicals have their concentrations maintained.
Electron structure or configuration The arrangement of electrons in an atom or ion.
Electrophile An electron-pair acceptor.
Electrophilic substitution A substitution reaction where an electrophile is attracted to an electron-rich atom or part on a molecule and a new covalent bond is formed by the electrophile accepting an electron pair.
Created by: Lauren31158