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biochem

metab of dietary lipids

QuestionAnswer
lipids hydrophobic. Extracted by nonpolar solvents (ether)
Lipids Found in? Membrane. Adipocytes. Plasm as lipoprotein particles
Lipid kcal/g? Major source of energy, 9 kcal/g
Lipids act as? Regulators and Co-factors (fat-soluble vitamins
Lipids are precursors to? Prostaglandins (for clotting)Steroid hormones
Can make fat out of sugar but... not sugar out of fat
Dietary Lipids TriglyceridesCholesterolCholesteryl esters(cholesterol + fatty acid)Phospholipds (phosphate and glycerol)Unesterified fatty acids (free fatty acids)
Enzymes responsible for dietary lipids before absorption...In the stomach Ligual and gastric lipases
Ligual and gastric lipases Catalyze the digestion of triacylglycerols (fatty acids + short- or medium-chain)Acid-stable enzymes
Digestion of triacylglycerols with fatty acids of long-chain... what is this action called? emulsification
Emulsification is facilitated by? Bile salts (produced by liver from cholesterol and stored in gallbladder). Peristalsis
Pancreatic enzymes Pancreatic lipases. Cholesterol ester hydrolase (cholesterol esterase). Phospholipase A2 Lysophospholipase
Pancreatic lipases remove fatty acids from triacylglycerol Activated by bile salt
Orlistat inhibits lipases è undigested lipids è fat malabsorption è weight loss
Colipase (binds to lipase (intestinal or pancreatic) for better lipid digestion
Cholesterol ester hydrolase (cholesterol esterase) hydrolyzes cholesterol esters Cholesterol esters è free cholesterol + free fatty acids
Phospholipase A2 lysophospholipid catalyzes the hydrolytic removal of FA form carbon 2 of phospholipid= FFA + lysophospholipid
Lysophospholipase removes FA on carbon 1 from lysophospholipidGlycerylphosphoryl base is excreted or absorbed
Absorption of Lipids by intestinal mucosal cells Dietary lipid è Free FAs + Free cholesterol + 2-monoacylglycerol è forms mixed micelles with bile salts for absorption
Mixed micelles are ? water soluble . transport of the digested lipids . absorbed by the brush border membrane
Short and medium chain length FAs are absorbed without mixed micelle structure
Long chain FAs Synthesis After absorption, lipids migrate to the ER
ER site of complex lipid biosynthesis. è FAs (+) by acetylation using fatty acyl CoA synthetase (thiokinase)
Fatty acyl CoA synthetase Synthesis of triacylglycerols. Esterification of cholesterol
Triacylglycerol synthase Converts 2-monoacylglycerols to triacylglycerols
Acyltransferase Reacylates lysophospholipids to phospholipids
Acyl CoA: cholesterol acyltransferase Esterifies cholesterol to cholesterol ester
Roles of Albumin universal transporter. Most abundant in blood. Carries fatty acid(short and medium chain). Non-specific
Roles of Bile salts, place of production and storage? Facilitates the emulsification of long chain fatty acids. produced by liver from cholesterol. stored in gallbladder
Regulation of digestion... Pancreatic secretion are hormonally controlled
Cholecystokinin (CCK) produced by Jejunum and lower duodenum cells.
CCK roles: release of bile salts. Secretion of pancreatic lipases. Decrease in gastric motitlity. Synthesis of other hormones eg Secretin
Secretin released by intestinal cells at low pH due to entry of chime. Low pH inhibits pancreatic enzymes for lipid digestion. Causes the pancreas to secrete bicarbonate. Biocarbonate neutralizes and adjust the pH for optimal enzymatic activity
Name the enzymes that are: Acid stable Lingual and gastric lipases
Name the enzymes that are: Acid sensitive Secretin
Lipoprotein lipase releases triglycerides contained in chylomicrons in the capillaries of: Muscle,Adipose tissues, Lactating mammary gland, Lung, Kidney,Liver
Familial lipoprotein lipase deficiency Autosomal recessive disorder, Massive chylomicronemia
Fates of Free FAs Taken by muscle cells or adipocytes. Bound to albumin for further transportation in the blood. Oxidized to synthesize ATP in cells containing mitochondria
Fates of Glycerol glycerol to glycerol 3-phosphate (liver). Glycolysis(energy need). Gluconeogenesis (glucose need
Fates of Chylomicron remnants Cholesteryl esters. Phospholipids. Apolipoproteins. Triacylglcerol (few)
Type III hyperliproteinemia malfunction of the removal of chylomicron remnants by the liver
Cystic fibrosis Malfunction of exocrine cells of Liver, pancrease, and gallbladder
Shortened bowel Steatorrhea = elimination of dietary lipids and fat soluble vitamins in feces
Chylomicrons are? large lipoprotein particles that transport dietary lipids from the intestines to other locations in the body. one of the five major groups of lipoproteins (chylomicrons, VLDL, IDL, LDL, HDL.
Chylomicrons enable fat and cholesterol to... move within the water-based solution of the bloodstream.
Created by: agarling