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Atom. The smallest unit of an element that maintains the properties of that element.
Element. A pure substance that cannot be broken into simpler substances, composed of one type of atom.
Compound. A substance made up of atoms of two or more elements that are chemically combined.
Ancient Greek's theory. Over 2,000 years ago, viewed matter as being composed of the four elemental substances. (Water, earth, fire, and air), was later disproved.
Robert Boyle's theory. 1600's, discovered the elements silver and gold, which led to the search for more elements, which disproved the Greek's concept.
Dalton's theory. 1700's, all matter is composed of small particles called atoms, which cannot be subdivided (disproved), created, or destroyed, atoms of a given element are identical in their chemical and physical properties, atoms of different elements are dissimilar.
Dalton's theory continued. Atoms of different elements have different properties, atoms of different elements combine in simple, whole number ratios to form compounds.
Law of Conservation of Mass. Established by Dalton, in chemical reactions, atoms are combined, separated, or rearranged but never created, destroyed, or changed.
Planetary Model. Established in the 1900's by Bohr, proposed model of the atom by showing a dense nucleus with electrons found in surrounding orbits.
What is the difference between the Plum Pudding Model and the Planetary Model? The Planetary Model has a positive nucleus and electrons in orbit.
Wave Mechanical Model. Has electrons in orbitals, which is the most probable location of electrons.
*Go over drawings of models* WOAH
Who discovered the electron and how? JJ Thompson with the Cathode Ray Tube.
How did JJ Thompson imagine the atom looked? Negatively charged electrons in a positive fluid.
Who discovered the nucleus and how? Rutherford, the gold foil experiment.
Explain the results of the gold foil experiment. Most of the alpha particles went straight through, indicating that atoms are mostly empty space. However, some did deflect, proving that the nucleus is dense and positively charged.
Charge, mass, and location of protons. Charge- +1 Mass- 1 amu Location- nucleus
Charge, mass, and location of neutrons. Charge- 0 Mass- 1 amu Location- nucleus
Charge, mass, and location of electrons. Charge- -1 Mass- 1/1836 amu (negligible) Location- orbitals
What does amu stand for and how was it established? Atomic mass unit, based on 1/12 of a carbon-12 atom.
What is the function of a neutron? To stabilize the nucleus.
What is the "fingerprint" of an element? The atomic number.
What three things does the atomic number tell you? Number of protons, nuclear charge, and number of electrons (if it's an atom).
What does the mass tell you? Number of protons and neutrons combined (number of nucleons).
How many electrons does each principle energy level hold? 1- 2 electrons 2- 8 electrons 3- 18 electrons 4- 32 electrons
The principle energy levels farther from the nucleus have ______ energy. More.
Formula for speed of light. Speed of light= wave length x frequency
At what rate does electromagnetic radiation travel through a vacuum of speed? Speed of light=3 x 10 to the eighth power
What does C stand for? Speed of light.
What does the upside down y stand for? Wavelength.
What does the v stand for? Frequency.
Wavelength and frequency are _____________ proportional. Inversely.
Light emitted by an electron moving from a higher to lower energy level has a frequency ____________ proportional to the energy charge of the electron. Directly.
Formula for energy of light. Energy of light= "h" x frequency of light.
Formula for "h". (Which just serves as Plahck's Constant) H= 6.63 x 10 to the negative 34th power (with the label js)
Electrons can move to different energy levels through gaining or losing _____________. Energy.
Energy is lost/gained in __________ amounts. Discrete. (You can't get/lose half of J)
What is the state called that electrons normally occupy? The ground state.
What is the state called directly after an electron gets bombarded by a photon with higher energy? The excited state.
The excited state of an electron is ______________. Unstable.
How is energy released after the excited state? Energy is released in the form of light and goes back to ground state.
Frequency. Number of wave cycles in a given time to pass a given point.
Unit for frequency. 1/sec.
Each element has a unique ___________ of light that occurs when reaching the ground state after the excited state. Spectrum.
Purple has the __________ frequency. Highest.
Red has the __________ frequency. Lowest.
What does n stand for? Principal Energy Level.
Wavelength. Distance between two crests.
How many electrons, orbitals, and sub levels does n=1 have? 2 electrons, one sublevel s with two electrons, one orbital.
How many electrons, orbitals, and sub levels does n=2 have? 8 electrons, two sublevels, s with two and p with 6 electrons, three orbitals.
How many electrons, orbitals, and sub levels does n=3 have? 18 electrons, three sublevels, s with 2, p with 6, and d with 10 electrons and five orbitals.
How many electrons, orbitals, and sub levels does n=4 have? 32 electrons, 4 sublevels, s with 2, p with 6, d with 10, and f with 14 electrons and 7 orbitals.
Isoelectric. Ions and Atoms that have the same electron configuration.
The farther away from the nucleus, the __________ the energy that the electron occupies. Higher.
Difference in energy between two energy levels. Quantum/Quanta.
Elements in the same family are located in the same ___________. Column.
What is the same with all elements in a family and what does this determine? Same number of valance electrons, which determines how a chemical reacts.
Members of the same group have similar ___________ ______________. Chemical properties.
Elements in the same period are located in the same ____________. Row.
What does the period number represent? Number of occupied principle energy levels.
True or False: Properties of elements change as you go across the periodic table. True.
Isotope. Atoms of the same element that contain different numbers of neutrons.
Isotopes have different __________ _____________. Mass numbers.
What does the atomic mass in decimal form tell us? By looking at the whole number closest to the decimal, we can determine which isotope is most abundant.
Atomic mass. Weighted average mass of an atom's naturally occurring isotopes.
Created by: emarciante10