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energy resources,atomspheric pollution,applied chemistry

Peat, lignite, bituminous and anthracite are the types of coal. Peat contains 5-6% carbon.
Coal, petroleum, natural gases are the fossil fuels. Percentage of carbon in anthracite, is 94 – 98%
Fuel used in rockets is called Rropellants. It is an explosive which is used in gun. Composition of hybrid propellant is N2O4 and Acrylic Salt
The LPG contains mainly propane and butane. The ratio of butane is higher in it. Which substance is added in LPG to detect gas leakage? Ethyl Mercaptan
Geothermal electricity is electricity generated from geothermal energy. Geothermal power is sustainable. Solar energy is renewable in nature. Which process is responsible for solar energy? Nuclear Fission
Natural gas contains methane, ethane, propane and butane. The percentage of methane is highest (i.e., 80-90%) in it.
Percentage of carbon in coke is 90-95%
Oil gas consists of methane, ethane, ethylene and hydrogen. Water gas contains carbon monoxide (45%) and hydrogen (45%).
Producer gas contains Carbon Monoxide 35% and Nitrogen 60%
Diesel vapours and air are used as a fuel in diesel engine. Methane is used in cooking gas. Which form of coal contains 78-86% carbon? Bituminous
(Fuel)Wood 3500(Calorific Value) (Kcal/kg)
(Fuel)Coal 4000-7000(Calorific Value) (Kcal/kg)
(Fuel)Natural gas 8600(Calorific Value) (Kcal/kg)
(Fuel)Coke 6500(Calorific Value) (Kcal/kg)
(Fuel)Water gas 4600-4800(Calorific Value) (Kcal/kg)
(Fuel)LPC 11900(Calorific Value) (Kcal/kg)
Biogas refers to a gas produced by breakdown of organic matter in the absence of oxygen. It originates from biogenic material and is a type of bio-fuel. It is used commonly in rural used areas in the form of Cooking Gas
Ethylene glycol acts as an anti-freezing agent in automobile engines.
Tetra ethyl lead is an anti-knocking agent.
Catalytic converter (which converts CO toCO2) in vehicles is made up of which element? Palladium
Air is made up of nitrogen, oxygen and trace amounts of carbon dioxide, methane, argon, hydrogen and helium. Nitrogen is the seventh most abundant element in our solar system.
Percentage of nitrogen in air is 78.09% by volume of Earth’s atmosphere.
Percentage of oxygen in atmosphere is 21%
In photochemical smog, a secondary pollutant is present which is thermally unstable. It is a lachrymatory substance. Name it. Peroxyacetyl Nitrate
Tear gas known as lachrymatory agent that stimulates the corneal nerves in the eyes to cause tears, pain and even blindness.
A component of a tear gas is CS gas. It is used as Riot Control Agent
Certain man-made chemicals are ozone-depletion. The parental hydrocarbons of these chemicals are ethane and methane. These chemicals are Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)
Global warming refers to the average increase in the Earth’s temperature due to rise in pollution. Greenhouse gases accumulate into the atmosphere and trap heat. Name a green house gas. Carbon Dioxide
Ozone in the ozone layer filters out UV-rays. Ozone layer is . present in stratosphere. UV-rays causes skin cancer. Range of wavelength of UV-rays ranges between 200 nm-315 nm
Carbon monoxide (CO) is the major harmful gas emitted by automobile vehicles. It reduces the blood’s ability of carry oxygen and its over-exposure may be fatal. CO along with aldehydes is responsible for which phenomenon? Photochemical Smog
A greenhouse gas is a gas in the atmosphere that absorb emits radiation within the thermal infrared range.
causes greenhouse effect. Among methane, water-vapour, Carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, ozone and oxygen, which is not a greenhouse gas? Oxygen
Production rate of chlorophyll decreases by sulphur dioxide.
Itai-itai disease caused by cadmium.
Minimata is a disease occurs due to the pollution of Methyl Mercury
Methyl isocyanate is an intermediate chemical in the production of carbamate pesticides. It is highly toxic and irritating material. Which disaster was occursed due to the leakage of methyl isocyanate Bhopal Gas Tragedy
Aerosols is suspended solid particles in the air. Sulphur dioxide is a pollutant which can damage plants and reduce crop yields. What is the main source of sulphur dioxide in the atmosphere? Burning of Fossil Fuels
Milk contains a sugar which is a disaccharide made by the glycosidic linkage between glucose and galactose. This sugar is Lactose
Cement is the complex mixture of silicate and aluminate of calcium. Gypsum is also present in trace amounts. Role of gypsum in cement is to Lower the Rate of Setting of Cement
Plastics are cross-linked polymers and extremely hard. Polythene and polystyrene are thermoplastics. An example of thermosetting plastic is Bakelite
Natural rubber is an elastic polymer. Its monomer is neo-isoprene.Synthesised rubber (neoprene) is the polymer of Chloroprene
Hardness of rubber is increased by adding carbon black to it. To increase elasticity of rubber, sulphur is added to it and it is heated. This process is known as Vulcanisation of Rubber
Soaps are the sodium and potassium salts of higher fatty acids. Sodium alkyl sulphonate and sodium alkyl benzene sulphonate are Detergents
Glass is an amorphous solid or supercooled liquid. Silica is the main composition of it. Why photochromatic glass becomes black in sunlight? Due to the Presence of Silver Bromide (AgBr)
Major composition of soda or soft glass is sodium calcium silicatewhile that of potash or hard glass is potassiun calcium silicate. Crown glass contains Barium Oxide (BaO)
Flint glass contains lead oxide and used in making prisms, lenses. Jena glass contains B2O3 and Al2O3. It is used in making bottles used in laboratories, why? It Remains Unaffected from Acid and Base
Fertilizers increases the fertility of soil. Calcium nitrate and ammonium sulphate increases the acidity of the soil. The nature of these compounds, is Basic
Calcium super phosphate is Ca(H2PO4)2 + 2CaSO4.2H2O]
.Urea does not affect the pH of soil. It is also called carbamide. Structure of urea is NH2CONH2
Trinitro toluene is a light yellow crystalline solid. It is an explosive. Trinitrophenol is called picric acid. What is used in mining extraction? Blasting Gelatin
Thyroxine is an iodine containing hormone. Which factor is responsible for the yellowness in the colour of cow’s milk? Kerotine
Sodium thiosulphate solution is used in photography as a fixer since, it removes undecomposed Ag, Br as a soluble silver thiosulphate complex. What is the formula of sodium thiosulphate? Na2S2O3
Titanium is used in making boats because it does not corrode by sea water. Contact lenses are made from lucite. It is a polymer of Methyl Methacrylate
Tanks used by suba divers are filled with air diluted with helium because helium is not soluble in blood even at higher temperature. This property is absent in Nitrogen
Polyacrylonitrile or orlon is used as a substitute for wool in making synthetic blankets, sweaters, etc. It is a polymer of acrylonitrile or vinyl cyanide. Polymer used in making non-stick cookwares, is Teflon
CFL, also called energy saving light, is a type of flourescent lamp. It contains mercury which complicates its disposal. Which toxic substances are present in polymers? Pthalates
Red (glass Colour) Copper oxide(Used Substance)
Green(glass Colour) Chromium oxide(Used Substance)
Violet(glass Colour) Manganese oxide(Used Substance)
Blue (glass Colour) Cobalt oxide(Used Substance)
Brown (glass Colour) Ferrous oxide(Used Substance)
Created by: dhanalakshmi