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acid ,bases and salts

According to Arrhenius concept, an acid is the substance which provides hydrogen ion on dissolving in water. Bronsted and Lowry Theory suggests acids are proton donors, HCI and H2SO4 are Acids
According to Lewis, the acids has a tendency to accept a lone pair of electrons. Oxyacids have both hydrogen and oxygen whereas hydra acids have only Hydrogen
Sulphuric acid (H2SO4) is used in petroleum exploration, medicines.
Aquaregia contains a mixture of nitric acid and Hydrochloric Add (HCI)
Potassium hydroxide is used in the production of soft soap.
Calcium oxide is used in the production of bleaching power and castic soda (NaOH).
A base used as supplement of rubber is Magnesium Oxide (MgO)
Magnesium hydroxide is used as an antacid in sugar industries. Which hydroxide is used to remove stains? Aluminium Hydroxide
Citrus fruits like lemon tamarind, etc contains acids.
Acetic acid is used in the preparation of vinegar, acetone.
Which acid is present in pineapple? Citric Acid
Tartaric acid is present in grapes and tamarind. It is used in making baking powder.
Acid, present in wheat, is Glutamic Acid
Formic acid acts in preservation of green fruits used in the processing of rubber in leather industries. An acid used as a preservator of medicines and foodstuffs, is BenzoicAcid
. According to Arrhenius, base is a substance whose aqueous solution gives hydroxide ion (OH–). Bronsted Lowry Theory suggests bases accept proton from another substances.Lewis Electronic Theory suggests that bases are the donors of a lone pair of Electrons
Citric acid Citrus fruits (lemon orange, tomato)
Formic acid Red ants, honey bee and scorpion
Acetic acid Fruit juices, fragrant oils
Sulphuric acid Green vitriol
Nitric acid Alum nitre
Benzole acid Grass, leaves, urine
Oxalic acid Sorel tree
Lemon 2.2 - 2.4
Vinegar 2.4 - 3.4
Tomato juice 4.0 - 4.4
Coffee 4.5 - 5.5
Human urine 5.5 - 7.5
Oxides and hydroxides of alkali metals and alkaline Earth metals are strong bases. The water soluble bases are called Alkalies
Caustic soda is used in soap-formation, purification of petroleumand manufactured medicines
. Acidity of soil can be removed by Calcium Hydroxide
Normal salt does not contain replaceable H+ and OH– ions in its molecule. Aqueous solution of such salts are either neutral or acidic or basic. The presence of these salts depend upon Nature of Cations andAnions
NaHSO4, NaHCO3, KHCO3 are acid salts.
Mg (OH)2MgCO3] are basic salts.
Basic salts contains O2– or OH– Group in its Molecule
Double salt is a mixture of two salts which on dissolution in water gives two types of metal ions. Examples are potash alum (K2SO4. Al2(SO4)3.24H2O),
Mohr’s salt (FeSO4.(NH4)2 SO4. 6H2O)), etc.
K(Ag(CN)) is an example of Complex Salt
Sodium Chloride (NaCI) is an ordinary salt, commonly used as edible salt.
Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) is used in removing acidity from human body and in fire-extinguishers.
Caustic soda is chemically known as Sodium Carbonate (Na2CO3.10H2O)
In the production of fertilizers and in glass industry, potassium nitrate is used.
Copper sulphate is used as insecticides, in electro-plating, colouration and printing.
Which salt is used as a colour bonding in colouration? Potash Alum
pH value represents the acidity or basicity of a substance. On pH scale, the pH value of a substance lies between 0 (zero) to 14
FeCl3,ZnCl3 are acidic salts. Similarly, aqueous solutions of CuSO4, NH4Cl are also acidic in nature. Their pH value is Less than 7
Na2CO3, CH3COONa, Na2C2O4 etc are alkaline salts. Their aqueous solutions are basic in nature. Their pH value is More than 7
NaCl, KCl, K2 SO4 etc are neutral salts. Their aqueous solutions are neutral. Their pH value is 7
pH value of milk is 6.4 –6.6.
pH of the blood of a normal man ranges between. 7.35 – 7.45
The solution in which pH does not alters on adding a small amount of acid or base, is called Buffer Solution.Solutions of sodium acetate and acetic acid are the examples of Buffer solution. pH of blood is maintained at 7.40 due to the buffer of Carbonic Acid and Hydrogen Carbonate
Turmeric is a natural indicator. It is of yellow colour due to curcumine. It is used in making the medicines for Cancer
Litmuspaper (Indicator) Blue(Colour) Red(In Acidic) Blue (Basic)
Methyl orange(Indicator) Red(Colour) Red(In Acidic) Yellow.(Basic)
Phenolphthalene (Indicator) Colourless(Colour) Colourless (In Acidic) Pink(Basic)
Universal Indicator(Indicator) Green(Colour) Red, orange, yellow(In Acidic) Violet, blue(Basic)
Created by: dhanalakshmi