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bonding and molecular state

Electronic Theory of Valency explains the electronic structure of the elements, Inert gases like neon, argon, krypton do not exhibit valency. The valency of inert gases, is Zero
Electrically charged atoms/groups of atoms are balled ‘ions’ cations are positively charged ions, (e.g., Na+, Mg++ , etc.) Cl–, O2–, etc, are negatively charged ions. These are known as Anions
Ionic bond is formed by the electron transfer from one atom to another among the atoms. NaCl is an ionic bond. Covalent bond forms by the sharing of electrons, (e.g., CO2 electrons). Shape of CO2 molecule is Colinear
Ammonia has pyramidal shape and water molecule is angular in shape. Which type of. bonds are present in NaOH, HCN and H2SO4? Both Ionic and Covalent Bond
Covalent bonds are of two types depending upon the types of overlapping of orbitals—Sigma () bond and Pi () bond. Who introduced the concept of hybridisation? Pauling
BeCl2 has sp hybridisation
, BCl3 has sp2 hybridisation
. The hybridisation in PCl5 is sp3d
Heitler and London (1927) introduced the Valence Bond Theory (VBT). It is based on the knowledge of atomic orbitals and electronic configuration of the elements.
Molecular Orbital Theory (MOT) was developed by F. Hund and RS Mulliken (1932)
Molecule Shape SiCl4 Tetrahedral
Molecule Shape AsF5 Trigonal bipyramidal
Molecule Shape H2S Bent/V-shaped
Molecule Shape PH3 Trigonal bipyramidal
Nylon-66(fibre) Adipic acid +hexamethylene diatnine (monomers) (uses)In making bristles for brushes, synthetic fibres, parachutes, as a substitute for metal in bearings
Nylon-6 ,or perlon Caprolactam In making fibres, plastics tyre cords and ropes.
Terylene Ethylene glycol and terisphthalic acid For making wash and wear fabrics, tyre cords, safety belts, tents etc
Kevlar Terephthalic acid +1,4-diatnino benzene For making bulletproof vests.
Lexan or polycarbonate, Diethyl carbonate + bis-phenol In making bulletproof A windows and safety helmets.
Polyurethanes Toluene diisocyanate +ethylene glycol For making washable,and long lasting mattresses cushions.
Created by: dhanalakshmi