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MC - All

Multicellular Organisms - All

QuestionAnswer
Why do multicellular organisms need to go through cell division? for growth and repair
Why is it important that the new daughter cells have the same number of chromosomes as the original parent cell? so they maintain the diploid chromosome complement,
What happens to the chromosomes during stage 2 of mitosis? they condense and replicate
What happens to the nuclear membrane during stage 2 of mitosis? starts to break down
Where do the chromosomes line up during stage 3 of mitosis? equator (middle) of the cell
What attaches to the chromosomes during stage 4 of mitosis? spindle fibres
What do the spindle fibres pull apart during stage 4 of mitosis? chromatids
What reforms around the groups of chromosomes during stage 5 of mitosis? new nuclear membrane
What starts to happen to the cytoplasm during stage 5 of mitosis? It divides
What is produced during stage 6 of mitosis? 2 new identical daughter cells
If a parent cell has 16 chromosomes, how many will each of the daughter cells have that are made during mitosis? 16
Why do unicellular organisms need to do cell division? for reproduction
If one cell divides every 10 minutes how many cells will be present after 50 minutes? 32
What is the name for an unspecialised cell? stem cell
What are the two functions of stem cells? Growth and repair
What are stem cells required for? self-renewal and producing specialised cells
Where are stem cells located in the human body? Bone marrow, skin, muscle
Give a medical use of stem cells Treat cancer, diabetes, make skin grafts, organ transplants
What is the ethical issue with embryonic stem cells kills the embryo
State the order of life. cell -> tissue -> organ -> organ system
What is a tissue? Groups of similar cells working together to perform the same function
What is an organ? Groups of similar tissues working together to perform the same function
What is an organ system? Groups of organs working together
An organism made up of more than one cell is called? Multicelllular
An organism made up of one cell is called? Unicellular
What is the specialisation of a red blood cell? No nucleus, Biconcave shape, contains haemoglobin
What is the function of a sperm cell? fertilise the egg
What is the specialisation of a sperm cell? tail to swim
What is the function of a red blood cell? Carries oxygen around the body
What is the nervous system composed of? Brain, Spinal Cord and Nerves
What is the central nervous system composed of? Brain and Spinal cord
Which part of the brain controls thought and personality? Cerebrum
Which part of the brain controls balance and coordination? Cerebellum
Which part of the brain controls heart rate? Medulla
What is the function of the Medulla? controls breathing and heart rate
What is the function of the Cerebrum? Controls thought and personality
What is the function of the Cerebellum? Controls balance and coordination
What are the three neurons present in the reflex arc? Sensory, inter and motor (SIM)
What is the function of the receptors in the reflex arc? detect stimulus (e.g sharp object)
Which neuron passes information from the inter nerve to the effector? Motor nerve
What is the function of the sensory neuron? Passes information from the receptors to the inter neuron
Which neuron is found in the CNS? Inter
Give two examples of an effector. Muscles and Glands
What is the function of an effector? To produce a response
What is the function of the inter neuron? To pass information from the sensory to the motor neuron
What is the gap between neurons called? Synapse
What is the function of the reflex arc? to protect the body
What diffuses between the neurons? chemical messages
What passes along a neuron? electrical impulses
Which gland releases hormones? Endocrine
Hormones are chemical messengers that travel in the? bloodstream
What are hormones made of? protein
What are the specific proteins that hormones bind to on target tissues called? receptors
Do hormones have a faster or slower response than nerves? slower
Which has a longer lasting effect, nerves or hormones? hormones
Which endocrine organ releases insulin and glucagon? Pancreas
When is insulin released? blood sugar too high
What is insulin's target tissue? Liver
What is insulin's function? To convert glucose into glycogen
Which gland releases hormones? Endocrine
Hormones are chemical messengers that travel in the? bloodstream
What are hormones made of? protein
What are the specific proteins that hormones bind to on target tissues called? receptors
Do hormones have a faster or slower response than nerves? slower
Which has a longer lasting effect, nerves or hormones? hormones
Which endocrine organ releases insulin and glucagon? Pancreas
When is insulin released? blood sugar too high (hIIIIIIgh)
What is insulin's target tissue? Liver
What is insulin's function? To convert glucose into glycogen
What is the function of the pancreas? detects changes in blood sugar and releases hormones
Where is glycogen stored? Liver
When is glucagon released? blood sugar too low (glucose is gone)
What is glucagon's function? To convert glycogen into glucose
Why is insulin released? To lower blood glucose levels
Why is glucagon released? To increase blood glucose levels
What is Diabetes? failure to produce insulin from the pancreas.
What is digestion? breakdown of large insoluble molecules into small soluble molecules (BLISS)
What is protein broken down into? amino acids
What is fat broken down into? fatty acids and glycerol
What is starch broken down into? maltose
What is the name for the finger-like projections in the small intestine? Villi
What is the function of the villi? Absorb nutrients from food
Why is the small intestine good at absorbing food? large number of villi providing a large surface area.
Give four features of the villi that allow them to easily absorb nutrients Large surface area, thin lining, good blood supply, high number of villi
Which part of the villi absorbs fatty acids and glycerol? Lacteal
Which component of the villi absorbs glucose and amino acids? Blood capillary
What does the blood capillary absorb? glucose and amino acids
What does the lacteal absorb? fatty acids and glycerol
What needs to be absorbed from the bloodstream? oxygen and nutrients
What is the waste material removed from cells into the bloodstream? carbon dioxide
What are the main gas exchange organs? the Lungs
What do the lungs contain that provide them with a large surface area? a large number of alveoli
What are the 3 features of alveoli that allow gas exchange? Large surface area, good blood supply, thin walls
Give one feature of tissues which allows them to exchange materials with cells? They have capillary networks.
What does the blood contain? plasma, red blood cells and white blood cells.
What are the main substances that the blood transports? oxygen, carbon dioxide & nutrients
What is the function of white blood cells? To destroy pathogens
Which white blood cell engulfs pathogens through phagocytosis? Phagocytes
What is the function of lymphocytes? produce specific antibodies which destroy pathogens
Why are antibodies specific? They only bind to a particular pathogen
Which blood vessels carries blood into the heart? Vein
Which blood vessels carries blood into the heart? Artery
Which blood vessel is the site of gas exchange? Capillaries
Describe the structure of arteries Thick wall, thick muscular layer, narrow channel
Describe the structure of veins thin wall, thin muscular layer, wide channel, valves
Describe the structure of capillaries? Thin wall (1 cell), highly branched forming networks, large surface area
Which side of the heart contains oxygenated blood? Left
Which side of the heart contains deoxygenated blood? Right
What are the two receiving chambers called? Atria (atrium)
What are the two pumping chambers called? Ventricles
What is the function of the left side of the heart? Pumps blood to the body
What is the function of the right side of the heart? Pumps blood to the lungs to be oxygenated
Which blood vessel takes blood into the heart from the body? Vena Cava
Which blood vessel takes blood into the heart from the lungs? Pulmonary vein
Which blood vessel takes blood away from the heart to the body? Aorta
Which blood vessel takes blood away from the heart to the lungs? Pulmonary artery
What is the function of the coronary artery? Provides heart with nutrients and oxygen
What happens when the coronary artery becomes blocked? Oxygen cannot get to the heart causing a heart attack
Which blood vessel carries blood under high pressure? Arteries
What is the function of valves? prevent the backflow of blood
Which blood vessel carries blood under low pressure? Veins
How many valves are within the heart? Four
What is the function of the xylem? Transports water up the plant
What is the function of the phloem? Transports sugar up and down the plant.
What provides the xylem with support? Rings of lignin
Is the xylem or phloem dead? Xylem
What is the function of the upper and lower epidermis in a plant leaf? Protection
What is the function of the palisade mesophyll cells? Photosynthesis
Which cells allow the opening and closing of the stomata Guard cells.
What structures are present in the phloem? Sieve tubes, sieve plates, companion cells.
State two functions of the stomata. Gas exchange and evapouration of water
What is transpiration? The evapouration of water from the stomata
What is the transpiration stream? Movement of water from root to leaves
What process allows water to move into the root hair cells Osmosis
What process allows water to move up the xylem Osmosis
Which structures are found in the transpiration stream? Root hair cells, xylem, stomata
What effect does increasing temperature have on transpiration? Increases transpiration
What effect does increasing humidity have on transpiration? decreases transpiration
What effect does increasing surface area have on transpiration? Increases transpiration
What effect does decreasing wind speed have on transpiration? decreases transpiration
Cells which contain two sets of chromosomes are called? Diploid
Cells which contain one set of chromosomes are called? Haploid
Which cells in the human body are haploid? Gametes (sex cells)
What is the male gamete in animals called and where is it produced? Sperm - Testes
What is the female gamete in animals called and where is it produced? Egg - Ovary
What is the male gamete in plants called and where is it produced? Pollen - Anther
What is the female gamete in plants called and where is it produced? Ovule - Ovary
What is fertilisation? The fusion of the nuclei of two haploid gametes to produce a diploid zygote
What does a zygote divide to form? An embryo
What is discrete variation? Can be split up into 2 or more groups
What is continuous variation? Shows a range of values
Tongue rolling is an example of? Discrete variation
Height is an example of? Continuous variation
What is an allele? Different forms of the same gene
What is a phenotype? The physical appearance due to genetic trait
Give an example of a phenotype Blue eyes
What is a genotype? the 2 alleles present e.g. BB or bb or Bb
How many dominant alleles do you need to allow the dominant phenotype to show One
How many recessive alleles do you need to allow the recessive phenotype to show Two
What is homozygous? Two of the same alleles (e.g. BB or bb)
What is heterozygous? Two different alleles (e.g. Bb)
What is polygenic inheritance? Characteristic controlled by more than one gene
Most traits are usually? polygenic and continuous
What are the names for the generations in a family tree? P, F1 and F2
Why are predicted ratios of offspring not always the observed ratio? Fertilisation is a random process.
Created by: StNiniansHS