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biochem 2. - PCC

First lecture exam - biochem 2

Main product of glycolysis and four additional products 1. ATP 2. Pyruvates, Lactic acdi, NADH, Alanine
5 things that stimulate glycolysis 1. +ADP 2. +AMP 3. +Pi 4. +Amonia 5. +Free Creating
5 things that inhibit glycolysis 1. +ATP 2. +Creatine phosphate 3. -pH 4. +Citrate 5. +Free fatty acids
Aerobic system : reactants and products 1. Fat, carbs, protein, ADP, AMP, Pi, acetyl, citrate, NAD, FAD 2. ATP, NADH, FADH
A molecule having a sulfure in it is a what? Thioester
What molecule is super -delta G allowing many nonfavorable reactions to occur? Phosphoenolpyruvate (-14.8 Kcal/mol)
What 2 molecules have a -delta G allowing things like ATP to be created? 1. Phosphoenolpyruvate 2. Creatine Phosphate
What stimulates energy pathways? What inhibits energy pathway? 1. Reactants 2. Products
ATP-PC system : Is it used in long term activity or short, explosive activity? Fast twitch or slow twitch? Short explosive activity, fast twitch
Regulatory enzyme in the ATP-PC system? Creatine Kinase
Coenzyme A = what type of bond? Thioester bond
ATP-PC system: Location, Reactants, Product 1. Cytosol 2. ADP, AMP, Pi 3. ATP
What stimulates ATP-PC system? What inhibits it? 1. ADP, AMP, Pi 2. ATP
Glycolysis: Breakdown of what? Anerobic or aerobic? 1. Carbs 2. Anaerobic
You put __ ATP into glycolysis and you get ___ ATP out. 1. 2 2. 4
What is the garbage in glycolysis? What happens when there is an increase in garbage? 1. NH3 (amonia) 2. Buisness is good therfore the garbage company - glycolysis - is stimulated
Rate limiting enzyme in glycolysis? PFK - phosphofructokinase
Glycolysis : Location, Reactants 1. Cytosol 2. Glucose, ADP, AMP, Pi
What type of muscle fibers would contain higher levels of PFK enzyme? Creatine kinase enzyme? 1. Fast 2. FGast
The aerobic system consists of 2 components? 1. Krebs 2. ETS
What does it mean to become oxidized? What is oxidized in the aerobic system? 1. To steal electrons 2. Carbs, Proteins and Fat
When electrons are stolen via the krebs cycle and go to the ETS who eventually gets the electrons? What is made because of this? 1. Oxygen 2. Water
Krebs cycle is located where? ETS is located where? 1. Matrix of mitochondria 2. Inner membrane of the mitochondria
What is the main enzyme for the krebs cycle? Dehydrogenase
When an electron moves down the ETS, it kicks out a what? Proton
What eventually is responsible for ATP production in the aerobic system? The proton gradient created by the ETS
Of the 3 energy producing systems, whichproduces the greatest amount of ATP? Aerobic system
What happens to the percent of FAT burned when we exercise? Carbs? 1. The percent goes down but the total amount goes up 2. The percent of carbs goes what up when we exercise
Low intensity exercise will cause what pathway to go? High intensity? Very high intensity 1. Aerobic 2. Glycolysis 3. ATP-PC system
Respiratory quotient is equal to what? VCO2/VO2
What will be used for fuel when QR is low? RQ is usually in a range between what and what? 1. Fat 2. 0.7-1
What helps you burn fat after you exercise? Carbs
G value of reactants is greater that G value of products makes for a what? Is this favorable or not? 1. -delta G 2. Favorable
A methyl group contains what? An amino group contains what? 1. CH3 2. N
What is often coupled to less favorable reactions allowing them to occur? Breakdown of ATP
What is the delta G for ATP formation, Phosphoenol pyruvate and Creatine phosphate? 1. +7.3 2. -14.8 3. -10.3
An energy charge of 1 will do what to enzyme such as PFK, Creatine Kinase and Dehydrogenase? Why? 1. It will slow these enzymes down (inhibits ATP generating systems) 2. Because you will have large amounts of ATP already!
What does exercise do to an energy charge? What will this tell the cell to do? 1. Lowers it 2. Produces ATP
FAD, FADH2, NAD+, NADH, what is the oxidized form, what is the reduced form? 1. NAD+, FAD 2. NADH, FADH2
Function of NADH and FADH2 Obtain electron from the macronutrients and then gives them to the ETS
Coenzyme A has what type of bonds? What is its function? 1. Thioester Bonds 2. Holds things for a while
What does Kinase do? Transfer phosohate groups
Mutase are __ that do what? Isomerase that rearange entire groups...not just a single atom
Enzyme class that does nothing but steal electrons. What is the process of stealing electrons called? 1. Dehydrogenase 2. Oxidation
Two things glycolysis produces: 1. ATP 2. Precursors for aerobic system
The first half of glycolysis traps ___ inot the cell by doing what? End product? 1. Glucose by adding a phosphate group to it so it can get out 2. Fructose 1,6 Bisphosphate
The 2nd half of glycolysis produces ATP by what means? End product? 1. Splits molecules in two and sets up large -delta G ractions which use this free energy to create ATP 2. Pyruvate
Glycolysis: First steps: What does it start with? What enzyme is used? What is created and how? 1. Glucose 2. Hexokinase 3. Glucose 6 Phosphate by transfering a phosphate from ATP to glucose
Glycolysis: second step: What goes to what via which enzyme? Glucose 6 phosphate --- phosphoglucoisomerase --- Fructose 6 phophate
Glycolysis: third step: What goes to what via what enzyme? Fructose 6 phosphate --- PFK --- Fructoise 1,6, bisphosphate
In the second half of glycolysis, fructose 1, 6 bisphosphate splits into 2 molecules? What enzyme? 1. DHAP (Dehydroxyacetone phosphate) and G3P (Glyceraloehyde 3 - phosphate 2. Aldose
Created by: LrB