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Grade 8 Chapter 1

Foundations for Algebra

absolute value the distance from 0 on a number line
additive inverse The opposite of a number.ex 4 and -4. The sum of the numbers equal zero.
algebraic expression An expression that contains at least one variable.
axes Two perpendicular number lines that intersect. and form a coordinate plane
base The number in a power that is used as a factor.
coefficient A number that multiplied by a variable.
constant A value that does not change.
coordinate plane A plane that is divided into four regions by a horizontal line called the x-axis and a vertical line called the y-axis.
evaluate To find the value of an algebraic expression by substituting a number for each variable and simplifying by using the order of operations.
exponent The number that indicates how many times the base in a power is used as a factor.
input A value that is substituted for the independent variable in a relation or function.
integers A member of the set of whole numbers and their opposites.
irrational numbers A real number that cannot be expressed as the ratio of two integers.
like terms Terms with the same variables raised to the same exponents.
multiplicative inverse The reciprocal of the number.
natural numbers counting numbers
numerical expressions an expression that contains only numbers and operations.
opposites A number that is the same distance from zero on a number line.
order of operations A process for evaluating expressions: PEMDAS
ordered pair A pair of numbers (x,y) that can be used to locate a point on a coordinate plane. The first number x indicates the distance to the left or right of the origin, and the second number y indicates the distance above or below the origin.
origin The intersection of the x- and y-axes in a coordinate plane. The coordinates are (0,0).
output The result of substituting a value for the independent variable in a function.
perfect square A number whose positive square root is a whole number.
power An expression written with a base and an exponent or the value of such an expression.
quadrant One of the four regions into which the x- and the y- axes divide the coordinate plane.
rational numbers A number that can be written in the form a/b, where a and b are integers and b is not equal to zero.
real numbers A rational or irrational number. Every point on the number line represents a real number.
reciprocal Also called multiplicative inverses. Their product is always equal to 1.
repeating decimal A rational number in decimal form that has a block of one or more digits that repeat continuously.
square root A number that is multiplied by itself to form a product is called a square root of that product.
term The parts of the expression that are added or subtracted.
terminating decimal A rational number in decimal form that has a finite number of digits after the decimal point.
variable A symbol used to represent a quantity that can change.
whole numbers The set of natural numbers and zero.
x-axis The horizontal axis in a coordinate plane.
x-coordinate The first number in an ordered pair, which indicates the horizontal distance of a point from the origin on the coordinate plane.
y-axis The vertical axis in a coordinate plane.
y-coordinate The second number in an ordered pair, which indicates the vertical distance of a point from the origin on the coordinate plane.
principal square root the positive root of a number
cube root a number that is raised to the third power to form a product
Created by: beckand