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From Open Stax Free Book

accuracy the degree to which a measured value agrees with correct value for that measurement
approximation an estimated value based on prior experience and reasoning
classical physics physics that was developed from the Renaissance to the end of the 19th century
conversion factor a ratio expressing how many of one unit are equal to another unit
derived units units that can be calculated using algebraic combinations of the fundamental units
English units system of measurement used in the United States; includes units of measurement such as feet, gallons, and pounds
fundamental units units that can only be expressed relative to the procedure used to measure them
kilogram the SI unit for mass, abbreviated (kg)
law a description, using concise language or mathematical formula, a generalized pattern in nature that is supported by scientific evidence and repeated experiments
meter the SI unit for length, abbreviated (m)
method of adding percents the percent uncertainty in a quantity calculated by multiplication or division is the sum of the percent uncertainties in the items used to make the calculation
metric system a system in which values can be calculated in factors of 10
model representation of something that is often too difficult (or impossible) to display directly
modern physics the study of relativity, quantum mechanics, or both
order of magnitude refers to the size of a quantity as it relates to a power of 10
percent uncertainty the ratio of the uncertainty of a measurement to the measured value, expressed as a percentage
physical quantity a characteristic or property of an object that can be measured or calculated from other measurements
physics the science concerned with describing the interactions of energy, matter, space, and time; it is especially interested in what fundamental mechanisms underlie every phenomenon
precision the degree to which repeated measurements agree with each other
quantum mechanics the study of objects smaller than can be seen with a microscope
relativity the study of objects moving at speed greater than about 1% of the speed of light, or of objects being affected by a strong gravitational field
scientific method a method typically begins with an observation and question that the scientist will research -> hypothesis -> test hypothesis with experiment(s) -> finalizes the result of the experiment and draws a conclusion
second the SI unit for time, abbreviated (s)
SI units the international system of units that scientists in most countries have agreed to use; includes units such as meters, liters, and grams
significant figures express the precision of a measuring tool used to measure a value
theory an explanation for patterns in nature that is supported by scientific evidence and verified multiple times by various groups of researchers
uncertainty a quantitative measure of how much your measured values deviate from a standard or expected value
unit a standard used for expressing and comparing measurements