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# PhysicsOS:Ch.1

### From Open Stax Free Book

Term | Definition |
---|---|

accuracy | the degree to which a measured value agrees with correct value for that measurement |

approximation | an estimated value based on prior experience and reasoning |

classical physics | physics that was developed from the Renaissance to the end of the 19th century |

conversion factor | a ratio expressing how many of one unit are equal to another unit |

derived units | units that can be calculated using algebraic combinations of the fundamental units |

English units | system of measurement used in the United States; includes units of measurement such as feet, gallons, and pounds |

fundamental units | units that can only be expressed relative to the procedure used to measure them |

kilogram | the SI unit for mass, abbreviated (kg) |

law | a description, using concise language or mathematical formula, a generalized pattern in nature that is supported by scientific evidence and repeated experiments |

meter | the SI unit for length, abbreviated (m) |

method of adding percents | the percent uncertainty in a quantity calculated by multiplication or division is the sum of the percent uncertainties in the items used to make the calculation |

metric system | a system in which values can be calculated in factors of 10 |

model | representation of something that is often too difficult (or impossible) to display directly |

modern physics | the study of relativity, quantum mechanics, or both |

order of magnitude | refers to the size of a quantity as it relates to a power of 10 |

percent uncertainty | the ratio of the uncertainty of a measurement to the measured value, expressed as a percentage |

physical quantity | a characteristic or property of an object that can be measured or calculated from other measurements |

physics | the science concerned with describing the interactions of energy, matter, space, and time; it is especially interested in what fundamental mechanisms underlie every phenomenon |

precision | the degree to which repeated measurements agree with each other |

quantum mechanics | the study of objects smaller than can be seen with a microscope |

relativity | the study of objects moving at speed greater than about 1% of the speed of light, or of objects being affected by a strong gravitational field |

scientific method | a method typically begins with an observation and question that the scientist will research -> hypothesis -> test hypothesis with experiment(s) -> finalizes the result of the experiment and draws a conclusion |

second | the SI unit for time, abbreviated (s) |

SI units | the international system of units that scientists in most countries have agreed to use; includes units such as meters, liters, and grams |

significant figures | express the precision of a measuring tool used to measure a value |

theory | an explanation for patterns in nature that is supported by scientific evidence and verified multiple times by various groups of researchers |

uncertainty | a quantitative measure of how much your measured values deviate from a standard or expected value |

unit | a standard used for expressing and comparing measurements |