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Chemistry the study of matter and the change in undergoes. (usually energy changes)
Organic Chemistry study of carbon containing compounds- now includes synthetics such as plastic
Biochemistry matter and processes of living organisms- (fats, lipids, protein, enzymes)
Inorganic Chemistry may contain short carbon chained molecules, but usually has no carbon.
Physical Chemistry covers thermodynamics and kinetics as well as other topics (energy is a large factor)
Thermodynamics change of heat
Kinetic movement of particles
H Hydrogen
Hydrogen H
Lithium Li
Li Lithium
Na Sodium
Sodium Na
K potassium
potassium K
Rubidium Rb
Rb Rubidium
Cesium Cs
Cs Cesium
Francium Fr
Fr Francium
B Boron
Boron B
aluminum Al
Al Aluminum
gallium Ga
Ga Gallium
Indium In
In Indium
Thallium Tl
Tl Thallium
Carbon C
C Carbon
Silicon Si
Si Silicon
Germanium Ge
Ge Geranium
Tin Sn
Sn Tin
Pb Lead
Lead Pb
Why are Significant Figures important? tells the reader how precise the measurements are.
T/F- all non-zero numbers are significant True
T/F- zeros between non-zero numbers are significant figures True
T/F- zeros at the beginning of a number are significant False
T/F- Zeros at the end of a number with a decimal are not significant False
T/F- All exact conversions and counting of a number have infinite numbers of significant figures True
How many significant figures are in 11.8 units? 3 sf
How many SF are in 0.024 mg? 2 SF
How many SF are in 110 cars? Infinite
When doing operations with SF what operation does this rule apply to? - the LEAST number of significant figures in any number of the problem determines the number of SF in the answer. Multiplication and Division
When doing operations with SF what operation does this rule apply to? - count the number of place holders in the decimal portion of each number, the least number should be used in the answer of the problem. Addition and Subtraction
What do we use to measure length? meter
what do we use to measure volume? liter
what do we use to measure mass gram
what do we use to measure time? seconds
what do we use to measure temperature? kelvin
what do we use to measure amount? mole
What do prefixes do to a base? makes it larger or smaller
N Nitrogen
Nitrogen N
P Phosphorus
Phosphorus P
As Arsenic
Arsenic As
Antimony Sb
Sb Antimony
Bi Bismuth
Bismuth Bi
O Oxygen
Oxygen O
Sulfur S
S Sulfur
Se Selenium
Selenium Se
Tellurium Te
Te Tellurium
Polonium Po
Po Polonium
Analytical chemistry Focuses on the composition of matter.
Heterogeneous mixture You can see all parts and easily split them
Matter Anything that has mass or takes up space
Mixture Matter with variable composition made from 2 or more substances
Pure substance Matter with a constant composition all particles have the same property
Element A substance made of atoms with the same atomic number
Compound A substance made of two or more elements that are chemically combined
Physical change Does not change the chemical composition of the substance. – Bending polishing cutting boiling melting and freezing
Physical property Describes physical appearance
Inertia Resistance to change in motion
Kinetic Molecular Theory All matter is made of particles in constant motion.
Kinetic Energy Energy of motion
Heat Energy that is transferred from one object to another. (You can't really measure heat, only change in temperature)
Intermolecular Forces Forces between molecules and atoms that determine the physical state of a substance.
Intramolecular forces All chemical bonds such as covalent, ionic, metallic
What type of force takes more energy to break? Intermolecular or Intramolecular? Intramolecular
Solids -Intermolecular forces are strong -particles are closely packed and travel a fraction of their diameter -have a definite shape and volume
Liquids -particle motion is limited by intermolecular forces -particles are in contact with each other -travel in a straight line by slipping past each other -have a definite volumes and takes shape of container
Gases -particles are independent of each other (very weak intermolecular forces.) -travel randomly in a straight line -assume the shape and volume of container
Plasma -matter is heated to extreme temperature (electrons are not away from matter) -matter is composed of electrons and positive ions -most of the universe is composed of plasma
Gas to a liquid Condensation (exothermic)
Liquid to a gas Vaporization (endothermic)
Gas to a solid Deposition (exothermic)
Solid to a gas Sublimation (endothermic)
Liquid to a solid Freezing (exothermic)
Solid to a liquid Melting (endothermic)
What did philosophers in the 1800s believe matter was made of? Earth, fire, water, and air
What did Democritus do? Propose tiny things called atmos – small individual indivisible particles. Said they move through empty space, different properties of matter where do two arrangements of atoms.
What did Dalton do? Believed all matter is made up of small particles called atoms. All atoms of elements are identical by mass. Matter is neither created or destroyed. Adams combine and small hole number ratio's.
What did JJ Thompson discover? Discovered electrons using the cathode ray tube. This was a pole that charge particles went up into.
What did Robert Millikan do? Figured out the charge of electrons using a famous oil drop experiment. This experiment calculated using average is the mass of oil drops and the rate at which would move toward the positive plate.
What atom model did Thompson create? The plum putting model- electrons embedded randomly and a mass of positive charge.
What atom model did Rutherford come up with? Developed the first nuclear model as a result of the gold foil experiment. Make sure you understand the gold foil experiment.
Atomic Mass The number of protons [e] in a neutral non- charged atom. Above the number on most periodic tables- always a whole number.
Mass number Protons + neutrons.
Atomic Mass- Usually blow symbol on periodic table. AMU x %
Isotopes Atoms of an element that have a different number of neutrons – All atoms of an element therefore don't have the same atomic number
Nuclide Symbol A symbol that notes the number of protons and neutrons of a specific isotope
Ions Atoms of an element that have a different number of electrons
Cation Ions that have lost all electrons(s) and are positively charged. Metals form cations
Anions Ions that have lost electron(s) and are negatively charged. non-metals form anions.
4 fundamental Forces Gravity, Weak, Strong, electromagnetic
F Fluorine
Fluorine F
Chlorine Cl
Cl Chlorine
Br Bromine
Bromine Br
I Iodine
Iodine I
At Astatine
Astatine At
He Helium
Helium He
Ne Neon
Neon Ne
Argon Ar
Argon Ar
Krypton Kr
Kr Krypton
Xe Xenon
Xenon Xe
Rn Radon
Radon Rn
Created by: Kate_Spires