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Final final study

Biochemical study

The hydride ion is which of the following? a. H0 b. H+ c. H- d. OH- H-
Which step of aerobic respiration occurs after glycolysis? a. electron transport chain b. ADP phosphorylation c. the Krebs Cycle d. pyruvate decarboxylation pyruvate decarboxylation
NAD+ is a carrier molecule for which of the following? a. hydride ions b. methyl groups c. protons d. acetyl groups hydride ions
What vitamin is used to produce the coenzyme FAD? a. vitamin B1 b. vitamin B2 c. vitamin B3 d. vitamin B5 vitamin B2
All of the following are part of coenzyme a except: a. ad adenine b. a thiamine c. a pantothenic acid d. a cysteamine a thiamine
The enzyme complex that converts pyruvate into an acetyl group is: a. pyruvate decarboxylase b. acetyl-CoA synthase c. pyruvate dehydrogenase d. hexokinase pyruvate dehydrogenase
True or False: amino acids are preferred fuel sources for energy generation over carbohydrates and fatty acids False
Dehydrogenase enzymes release what from a substrate? a. carbon dioxide b. hydride ions or hydrogen atoms c. acetyl groups d. methyl groups hydride ions or hydrogen atoms
Which enzyme joins an acetyl group from acetyl-CoA to molecule of oxaloacetate to form citric acid? a. aconitase b. fumarase c. citrate synthase d. succinyl-CoA synthetase citrate synthase
When a hydride ion or hydrogen is enzymatically removed from a substrate, it is attached to carrier molecule of: a. NAD+ b. Coenzyme A c. FAD d. Thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP) e. A and B f. C and D g. A and C h. B and D A and C
Which of the following processes occurs in the cytosol of the cell? a. pyruvate decarboxylation b. b-oxidation c. glycolysis d. the Krebs Cycle glycolysis
The process that represents a final common intersection for multiple pathways of oxidation of fuel molecules is: a. glycolysis b. pyruvate decarboxylation c. the electron transport chain d. the Krebs Cycle the Krebs Cycle
Glucose a. 3-carbon product of glycolysis NAD + b. carrier of hydrogen atom Pyruvate c. 2-carbon unit attached to a transport coenz Acetyl-CoA d. 6-carbon substrate for glycolysis FAD e. carrier of hydride ions Glucose -d NAD+ - e Pyruvate -a Acetyl-CoA -c FAD - b
Glycolysis a. The final step and goal of energy generation Pyruvate b. produces a gradient of H+ ions via the shuttling decarboxylation of electrons through the mitochondrial inner membrane Krebs Cycle c. catabolism of a 6-carbon sugar into a 3-carbon molecule Electron d. 2-C+4-C to 6-C to 5-C +CO2 to 4-C + CO2 Transport Chain ADP Phosphorylation e. formation of acetyl-CoA Glycolysis -c Pyruvate decarboxylation -e Krebs Cycle -d Electron Transport Chain - b ADP Phosphorylation - a
Two carbons enter the Krebs Cycle as ______ and leave as _______ a. acetyl groups, carbon dioxide b. glucose, pyruvate c. pyruvate, acetyl-CoA d. acetyl groups, oxaloacetale acetyl groups, carbon dioxide
Which of the following is not a function of nucleotides? a. form important structural components of cell and connective tissue b. form components of coenzymes c. can act as regulators of metabolism and universal currency of energy d. form the building blocks of nucleic acids form important structural components of cells and connective tissue
True or False: DNA is in the form of chromosomes most of the time in the nucleus of the cell False
DNA ligase e. creates an RNA primer DNA polymerase I f. joints Okazaki fragments together Primase c. replace RNA primer with DNA nucleotides and proofreads the daughter strand DNA polymerase III d. adds deoxyribonucleotides to the growing daughter DNA strand at over 1,000 DNA ligase -f DNA polymerase I -c Primase - e DNA polymerase III - d
DNA gyrase a. unwinds DNA and relieves supercoiling Helicase b. "unzip" DNA by relieving hydrogen bonding between base pairs DNA gyrase - a Helicase - b
Which of the following molecules is an important second messenger molecule that helps to regulate metabolism? a. cGMP b. CMP c. cADP d. cAMP cAMP
In order to fit almost 6 feet of DNA into each cell, it is first wrapped around proteins called: a. DNA binding proteins b. histamines c. chromatids d. histones histones
Loosely packed DNA in the nucleus that is transcribed frequently is known as: a. heterochromatin b. a chromosome c. a nucleosome d. euchromatin euchromatin
The strand of DNA that is replicated discontinuously with formation of Okazaki fragments is the: a. sense strand b. antisense strand c. lagging strand d. leading strand lagging strand
A portion of transcribed mRNA that does not contain information coding for a protein and is spliced out of the sequence is called a(n): a. intron b. exon c. codon d. methyl cap intron
A portion of tRNA molecule consisting of 3 nucleobases that are matched to the mRNA sequence is known as a(n): a. codon b. anticodon c. sense strand d. antisense strand anticodon
Consists of a double-stranded helix with base pairs "zipped" together with hydrogen bond DNA
Contain the nucleobase Uracil RNA
Contain deoxyribose DNA
Is the product of transcription RNA
Can perform enzymatic activity RNA
The Central Dogma of Molecular Biology proposed by Francis Crick in 1958 states that the most common flow of information in biological systems is from ______ to_______to________. a. RNA to DNA to protein b. protein to RNA to DNA c. DNA to protein to RNA d. DNA to RNA to protein DNA to RNA to protein
What is the function of tRNA? a. is a "blueprint" to be translated into proteins by ribosomes b. along with proteins forms the main structure of ribosomes c. carry an amino acid and an anticodon that matches a codon d. stores genetic information to be transcribed carry amino acid and an anticodon that matches a codon
mRNA is the product of ______ and the blueprint for ________ a. translation, transcription b. transcription, translation c. transcription, replication d. replication, transcription transcription, translation
Which of the following is true regarding base pairing in DNA? a. A pairs with G; C pairs with T b. A pairs with T, C pairs with G c. A pairs with U, C pains with G d. A pairs with C, G pairs with U A pairs with T, C pairs with G
Which of the following is NOT a component of a nucleotide? a. a phosphate b. a pentose c. a hexose d. a nitrogenous base a hexose
The enzyme that "unzip" DNA during replication by relieving hydrogen bonding between base pairs to form the replication fork is: a. DNA gyrase b. helicase c. DNA polymerase I d. primase helicase
Which of the following nitrogenous bases are pyrimidines? a. adenine b. guanine c. cytosine d. uracil e. thymine f. a and b g. c, d and e c, d and e
True or False: purine nitrogenous bases have only 1 ring False
In RNA, adenine is paired with a. uracil b. guanine c. cytosine d. thymine uracil
Which of the following creates RNA from a DNA template? a. DNA polymerase I b. primase c. RNA polymerase d. DNA polymerase III e. A and D f. B and C g. A and B h. C and D B and C
" Catalytic perfection" describes which of the following enzyme? a. pepsin b. catalase c. superoxide dismutase d. trypsin superoxide dismutase
What is the function of ceruloplasmin? a. transform copper b. stores calcium c. converts hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) to water and molecular oxygen (O2) d. transforms into a mesh that clots blood and stops bleeding transform copper
Which of the following neurotransmitters is a peptide? a. GABA b. substance P c. serotonin d. dopamine substance P
Oxidoreductase catalyzes redox reaction
transferase moves a functional group from one molecule to another
hydrolase uses water to break various bonds
lyase breaks bonds by elimination or substitution
Isomerase rearranges functional groups within a single molecule
ligase joins two molecules with covalent bonds
All of the following proteins/ peptides are antioxidants and scavengers of free radicals EXCEPT: a. glutathione b. superoxide dismutase c. catalase d. pepsin pepsin
True or False: most enzymes are nonspecific and can operate on many substrates False
All of the following are fibrous proteins except: a. collagen b. elastin c. albumin d. keratin albumin
Which of the following would occur in muscle contraction if there were too little ATP present? a. myosin could not bind actin b. the power stroke could not occur c. the myosin binding site of actin would never become exposed d. myosin would not release from actin and reorient myosin would not release from actin and reorient
Which of the following proteins coats the horns of animals? a. collagen b. keratin c. elastin d. fibrin keratin
Antibodies ( immunoglobulins) are large, Y-shaped glycoproteins that are produced by which type of cell? a. B lymphocytes b. T lymphocytes c. neutrophils d. eiosinophils B lymphocytes
All of the following are major structural categories of protein EXCEPT a. membrane b. complex c. fibrous d. globular complex
Which of the following is TRUE regarding enzymes? a. most reactions that occur in living organisms do not require enzymes b. most enzymes are highly specific for one substrate c. enzymes are denoted by the suffix "-ose" d. enzymes raise the activation energy of a reaction most enzymes are highly specific for one substrate
The protein that stores iron in the cytoplasm of cell is: a. ferritin b. ceruloplasmin c. transferrin d. calsequestin ferritin
Which of the following transports two ions or molecules in the same direction using passive transport? a. uniporter b. symporter c. antiporter d. pump symporter
A stretch receptor ( in the bladder wall, for instance) would have which type of ion channel? a. mechanically - gated b. ligand-gated c. voltage-gated d. none of the above mechanically - gated
Which of the following membrane protein transporters uses active transport? a. a sodium channel b. a glucose carrier protein c. a sodium-potassium pump d. a uniporter a sodium-potassium pump
True or False: proteins can be both messengers and receptors True
Which statement is False regarding enzyme inhibition? a. a competitive inhibitor blocks the substance from the active site b. some enzymes can be inhibited by being modified ( phosphorylated, for example) c. many pharmaceutical drugs are enzyme inhibitors d. the presents of an inhibitor increases enzymatic activity the presents of an inhibitor increases enzymatic activity
Created by: bklana52