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ChemistrySC:Ch. 1

Essential Ideas

Accuracy How closely a measurement aligns with a correct value
Atom Smallest particle of an element that can enter into a chemical combination
Celsius Unit of temperature; water freezes at 0 degrees Celsius and boils at 100 degrees Celsius on this scale
Chemical Changes Change producing a different kind of matter from the original kind of matter
Change Property Behavior that is related to the change of one kind of matter into another kind of matter
Chemistry Study of the composition, properties, and interactions of matter
Compound Pure substance that can be decomposed into two or more elements
Cubic Centimeter Volume of a cube with an edge length of exactly one centimeter
Cubic Meter SI unit of volume
Density Ratio of mass to volume for a substance or object
Dimensional Analysis Versatile mathematical approach that can be applied to computations ranging from simple unit conversions to more complex, multi-step calculations involving several different quantities
Elements Substance that is composed of a single type of atom; a substance that cannot be decomposed by a chemical change
Exact Number Number derived by counting or by definition
Extensive Property Property of a substance that depends on the amount of the substance
Fahrenheit Unit of temperature; water freezes at 32 degrees Fahrenheit and boils at 212 degrees Fahrenheit on this scale
Gas State in which matter has neither definite volume nor shape
Heterogeneous Mixture Combination of substances with a composition that varies from point to point
Homogeneous Mixture (Also, solution) combination of substances with a composition that is uniform throughout
Hypothesis Tentative explanation of observations that acts as a guide for gathering and checking information
Intensive Property Property of a substance that is independent of the amount of the substance
Kelvin (K) SI unit of temperature; 273.15 K = 0 degrees Celsius
Kilograms (kg) Standard SI unit of mass; 1 kg = approximately 2.2 pounds
Law Statement that summarizes a vast number of experimental observations, and describes or predicts some aspect of the natural world
Law of Conservation of Matter When matter converts from one type to another or changes form, there is no detectable change in the total amount of matter present
Length Measure of one dimension of an object
Liquid State of matter that has a definite volume but indefinite shape
Liter (L) (Also, cubic decimeter) unit of volume; 1 L = 1000 cm cubed
Macroscopic Domain Realm of everyday things that are large enough to sense directly by human sight and touch
Mass Fundamental property indicating amount of matter
Matter Anything that occupies space and has mass
Meter (m) Standard metric and SI unit of length; 1 m = approximately 1.094 yards
Microscopic Domain Realm of things that are much too small to be sensed directly
Milliliter (mL) 1/1000 of a liter = 1 cm cubed
Mixture Matter that can be separated into its components by physical means
Molecule Bonded collection of two or more atoms of the same or different elements
Physical Change Change in the state or properties of matter that does not involve a change in its chemical composition
Physical Property Characteristic of matter that is not associated with any change in its chemical composition
Plasma Gaseous state of matter containing a large number of electrically charged atoms and/or molecules
Precision How closely a measurement matches the same measurement when repeated
Pure Substance Homogenous substance that has a constant composition
Rounding Procedure used to ensure that calculated results properly reflect the uncertainty in the measurements used in the calculation
Scientific Method Path of discovery that leads from question and observation to law or hypothesis to theory, combined with experimental verification of the hypothesis and any necessary modification of the theory
Second (s) SI unit of time
SI Units (International System of Units) Standards fixed by the international agreement in the International System of Units
Significant Figures (Also, significant digits) all of the measured digits in a determination, including the uncertain last digit
Solid State of matter that is rigid, has a definite shape, and has a fairly constant volume
Symbolic Domain Specialized language used to represent components of the macroscopic and microscopic domains, such as chemical symbols, chemical formulas, chemical equations, graphs, drawings, and calculations
Theory Well-substantiated, comprehensive, testable explanation of a particular aspect of nature
Uncertainty Estimate of amount by which measurement differs from true value
Unit Standard of comparison for measurements
Unit Conversion Factor Ratio of equivalent quantities expressed with different units; used to convert from one unit to a different unit
Volume Amount of space occupied by an object
Weight Force that gravity exerts on an object
Chemistry today... continues to deepen our understanding and improve our ability to harness and control the behavior of matter
What is chemistry considered? Considered a central science due to its connections with other approaches of STEM
What is chemistry based on? Chemistry is based on observation and experimentation; involves answering questions and explaining observations through laws and theories of chemistry
How do you test hypotheses? through experimentation, calculation, and/or comparison with other experiments
What do hypotheses attempt to explain? Hypotheses attempt to explain the laws of science
What are the 3 domains to study/describe matter and energy? Macroscopic, microscopic, and symbolic
How are solids and liquids matter? Solids and liquids are observed taking up space and has mass
How is gas a matter? Gas is matter because without it, a balloon would stay collapsed
Solids are... rigid with a definite shape
Liquids... flow and takes shape of container
What forms when liquid is acted upon by gravity? Liquid forms a flat or slightly curved upper surface when acted upon by gravity
What happens to liquids in zero G? Liquids assume a spherical shape
What are liquids and solids nearly independent of? Pressure
Gas... takes both shape and volume of container
What is the 4th state of matter? Plasma
What does plasma occur naturally? Naturally occurs inside stars
Plasma... is a gaseous state with appreciable numbers of electrically charged particles
How is plasma distinct from gas? Plasma is distinct from gas due to electrically charged particles
What are some examples of where plasma is found? Plasma is found in lightning, certain tv screens, and instruments that detect metals
What are the two ways to measure mass? 1. measure force to accelerate and 2. compare mass to standard mass with a balance
Is weight related to mass? Weight is related to mass but it is not the same thing
What is force proportional to? force is proportional to mass
What is true about weight, force, and mass? Weight changes as force of gravity changes but mass stays the same
What is an easier explanation on the law of conservation of matter? matter can neither be created nor destroyed
Who first suggested that matter is composed of atoms? Greek philosophers Leucippus and Democritus during 5th century BCE
Who supported the theory of Leucippus and Democritus? In the 19th century, John Dalton the hypothesis with quantitative measurements
What is the bond between atoms that makes a molecule? A chemical bond
How do atoms move around in a molecule? Atoms move around as a unit; six-pack can of soda, keys in a key ring, and water
What are the two broad categories of matter? Mixtures and pure substances
What do all specimens of pure substances have? All specimens of pure substances have exactly the same makeup and properties
Pure substances can be divided into... elements and compounds
What can compounds produce? Either elements or other compounds or both
What are the two types of mixtures? Heterogeneous mixture and homogenous mixture
What is an example of a mixture? Evaporation
What is an example of a heterogeneous mixture? Italian dressing
What is an example of a homogenous mixture? Sports drinks have same amounts of water, sugar, coloring, flavoring, electrolyte mixed together uniformly
What is true about the elements? Over 100 elements with tens of millions of combinations; each has specific composition and possesses definite chemical and physical properties
What are properties? characteristics enabling us to distinguish one substance from another
What are the physical properties? Density, color, hardness, melting/boiling point, electrical conductivity; some physical properties are observed without changing the physical state
What are some examples of physical change? wax melting, sugar dissolving, and steam condensing to water; still the same chemical composition but different physical state
What is an easier definition of chemical property? change of one type of matter into another type; example include flammability, toxicity, acidity, reactivity, heat of combustion
How do we identify chemical properties? To identify chemical property, look 4 chemical change
Simple definition of extensive property? Property depending on the amount of matter present; mass and volume of substance;
Example of both extensive and intensive property? Both a drop of hot cooking oil and pot of oil are at the same temperature (intensive), but pot clearly contains much more heat (extensive)
What are the 3 classes of the elements based on their properties? Properties can be used to sort the elements in 3 classes: metals, nonmetals, and metalloids
Metals... conduct well
Nonmetals... conduct poorly
Metalloids... have properties of both metals and nonmetals
What do measurements provide? Measurements provide macroscopic information, which is the basis of most hypotheses, theories, and laws
What type of information do measurements provide? Measurements provide 3 kinds of information: numbers, units, and indication of uncertainty
The numbers in measurements... are represented through decimal form and scientific notation; 298,000 kg = 2.98 x 10 to the 5th power kg
The units in measurements... are standards of comparison for measurements (L, lb, m); without units, numbers can be confusing
What is the unit for length? meter (m)
What is the unit for mass? kilogram (kg)
What is the unit for time? second (s)
What is the unit for temperature? kelvin (k)
What is the unit for electric current? ampere (A)
What is the unit for amount of substance? mole (mol)
What is the unit for luminous intensity? candela (cd)
femto... f; factor of 10 to the -15
pico... p; factor of 10 to the -12
nano... n; factor of 10 to the -9
micro... μ; factor of 10 to the -6
milli... m; factor of 10 to the -3
centi... c; factor of 10 to the -2
deci... d; factor of 10 to the -1
kilo... k; factor of 10 to the third
mega... M; factor of 10 to the sixth
giga... G; factor of 10 to the ninth
tera T; factor of 10 to the twelfth
Where were the initial units of the metric system established? The initial units of the metric system was established in France during the French Revolution; eventually became SI
What is the standard unit of length for SI and original metric system? The standard unit of length for SI and original metric system is the meter (m)
How many inches are in a meter? 39.37 inches
How many yards are in a meter? 1.094 yards
How many meters are in a kilometer? 1000 meters or 10 to the 3rd power
How many meters are in a centimeter? 0.01 meters or 10 to the -2 power
How many meters are in a millimeter? 0.001 meters or 10 to the -3 power
How is a kilogram defined? It is defined by a certain cylinder of platinum-iridium alloy, which is kept in France
1 kilogram equals? 2.2 pounds or 1000 grams or 10 to the -3rd power
What property is temperature? Temperature is an intensive property
What other units of time can be used in the SI system? hours, days, and years can be used
What is the standard SI unit for volume? The standard SI unit for volume is length; standard volume is cubic meter which is a cube with an edge length of a meter
What is a more commonly used unit of volume? A more commonly used unit of volume is decimeter (0.1 m or 10 cm)
What is the more common name for cubic decimeter? Liter is the more common name for cubic decimeter
How many quarts are in a liter? 1 liter equals 1.06 quarts
What is the volume of a cube with an edge length of exactly 1 centimeter? cubic centimeter
A cubic centimeter is also called? a milliliter; 1/1000 of a liter
Density is defined by? the base units of mass and length
What is the often used unit for the density of a solid or liquid? g/cm cubed
What is the often used unit for the density of a gas? g/L
What is the range of density for most solids and liquids? Most solids and liquids have density between 0.7g/cm cubed and 19g/cm cubed
Volume, in the formula to find density, is found... indirectly through length measurement
What is the only type of measurement free from uncertainty? Counting; numbers of defined quantities are also exact
Quantities derived from measurements other than counting are uncertain to varying extends due to? practical limits of measurement process used
How should measurements with a graduated cylinder be made? Measurements with graduated cylinder should be made below meniscus; can only make reasonable estimates; pointless to estimate to hundredths place due to tenths place being uncertain
Which is significant between leading, captive, and trailing? Captive and trailing 0´s are significant and leading 0´s are insignificant
What are the 3 rules of rounding? add/subtracting - least number of decimal places; multiplying/dividing - least number of sig figs; rule of #5
How are measurements precise? Measurements are precise if yield very similar result if repeated the same way
How are measurements accurate? Measurements are accurate if yields result very close to true/accepted value
What is an easier definition of both accurate and precise? Precise values agree with each other; accurate values agree with a true value
How many yards are in a meter? 1 m = 1.0936 yd
How many cm are in an inch? 1 in. = 2.54 cm
How many miles are in a kilometer? 1 km = 0.62137 mi
How many meters are in a mile? 1 mi = 1609.3 m
How many quarts are in a liter? 1 L = 1.0567 qt
How many liters are in a quart? 1 qt = 0.94635 L
How many L are in cubic feet? 1 cubic feet = 28.317 L
How many mL are in a tbsp? 1 tbsp = 14.787 mL
How many lbs are in a kg? 1 kg = 2.2046 lb
How many grams are in a lb? 1 lb = 453.59 g
How many grams are in 1 (avoirdupois) oz? 1 (avoirdupois) oz = 28.349 g
How many grams are in 1 (troy) oz? 1 (troy) oz = 31.103 g
What does temperature refer to? Temperature refers to hotness/coldness
What happens to most substances when temperature increases or decreases? When temperature increases, most substances expand and when temperature decreases, most contract
What is the freezing/boiling point of water in Celsius? Freezing = 0 degrees; Boiling = 100 degrees
What is the freezing/boiling point of water in Fahrenheit? Freezing = 32 degrees; Boiling = 212 degrees
What is the formula to find degrees Fahrenheit? 9/5 x Temp. in degree Celsius + 32
What is the formula to find degrees Celsius? 5/9 (Temp. in degrees Fahrenheit - 32)
What is the freezing/boiling point of water in Kelvin? Freezing = 273.15 K; Boiling = 372.15 K
What is the formula to find Kelvin? Temp. in degrees Celsius + 273.15
What is the formula to find degrees Celsius using Kelvin? Temp. in Kelvin - 273.15